Cases reported "Bites, Human"

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1/6. A human bite.

    We report the transmission of group A streptococci by a human bite leading to severe necrotising fasciitis. Rapid surgical and antibiotic treatment led to healing without fractional loss of the patient's infected leg.
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ranking = 1
keywords = transmission
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2/6. Human bites and the risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission.

    The risk of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) transmission following a bite injury is important to many groups of people. The first are those who are likely to be bitten as an occupational risk, such as police officers and institutional staff. Another group are represented by the victims and perpetrators of crimes involving biting, both in attack and defense situations. The possibility of these bites transmitting a potentially fatal disease is of interest to the physicians who treat such patients and the legal system which may have to deal with the repercussions of such a transmission. Bite injuries represent 1% of all emergency department admissions in the united states, and human bites are the third most common following those of dogs and cats. The worldwide epidemic of hiv and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) continues, with >5 million new cases last year and affecting 1 in 100 sexually active adults. A review of the literature concerning human bites, hiv and AIDS, hiv in saliva, and case examples was performed to examine the current opinion regarding the transmission of hiv via this route. A bite from an hiv-seropositive individual that breaks the skin or is associated with a previous injury carries a risk of infection for the bitten individual.
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ranking = 7
keywords = transmission
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3/6. Transmission of hepatitis B by human bite--confirmation by detection of virus in saliva and full genome sequencing.

    hepatitis b virus (HBV) can be detected in saliva of carriers and epidemiological studies suggest human bite as a possible route of transmission. We report a case of acute hepatitis B that developed after an individual with learning difficulty was bitten by a fellow resident in a sheltered accommodation. The attacker was found to be a chronic carrier of HBV and virus was present in his saliva. The HBV in both men had identical genotype and sequence. Future studies are warranted to investigate the role of saliva as a vehicle of HBV transmission in the community.
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ranking = 2
keywords = transmission
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4/6. Lack of transmission of hiv through human bites and scratches.

    To examine the relative risk of transmission of the human immuno-deficiency virus (hiv) through bites and scratches, we studied 198 health care workers, 30 of whom were traumatized in this fashion while caring for an aggressive AIDS patient. This violent patient frequently bit or scratched others, his mouth had blood and saliva, while his fingernails were at times soiled with semen, feces, and urine. He was hiv antibody and antigen positive. Although hiv was recovered from his peripheral blood lymphocytes, after 2.5 years of serial follow-up, all traumatized personnel were clinically normal, no hiv was cultured from their blood, and all were hiv antibody and P24 antigen negative. We conclude that this viremic AIDS patient, while producing copious amounts of body fluids, failed to infect those caring for him through bites and scratches. The risk of transmission of hiv through this route under similar conditions should be low.
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ranking = 6
keywords = transmission
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5/6. Transmission of hepatitis B by a human bite: an occupational hazard.

    Hepatitis B developed in a policeman 15 weeks after he was bitten on the hand. A few days after the bite hepatitis B developed in the assailant. The bite had drawn blood and this method of inoculation was presumed to be the route of transmission of the virus. Compensation was awarded on the grounds that this was an occupationally acquired disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = transmission
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6/6. Molecular evidence for transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus type II infection by a human bite.

    Investigation of a human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) infection in a female Australian blood donor identified a human bite as the likely mode of transmission, confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of the proviral tax/rex from both donor and contact. We believe this to be the first report of the transmission of an HTLV by a human bite.
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ranking = 6
keywords = transmission
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