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1/17. Human monocytic ehrlichiosis: an emerging pathogen in transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: The spectrum of disease caused by Ehrlichia spp. ranges from asymptomatic to fatal. awareness and early diagnosis of the infection is paramount because appropriate therapy leads to rapid defervescence and cure. If left untreated, particularly in immunosuppressed patients, ehrlichioses may result in multi-system organ failure and death. methods: We report the second case of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) in a liver transplant recipient, and review the literature. RESULTS: The patient presented with fever and headache, had negative cultures, and despite broad-spectrum antimicrobial coverage appeared progressively septic. After eliciting a history of tick exposure we treated the patient empirically with doxycycline. The diagnosis of HME was confirmed by 1) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for ehrlichia chaffeensis, 2) acute and convalescent serum titers, and 3) in vitro cultivation of E chaffeensis from peripheral blood. CONCLUSION: Although human ehrlichioses are relatively uncommon, they are emerging as clinically significant arthropod-borne infections. Although epidemiological exposure is responsible for infection, immunosuppression makes patients more likely to succumb to disease. A high index of suspicion and early treatment results in a favorable outcome.
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keywords = lyme
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2/17. ehrlichiosis infection in a 5-year-old boy with neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly.

    ehrlichiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient with recent fever, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and history of tick exposure. We present a previously healthy 5-year-old boy who was referred to the hematology-Oncology Clinic to consider a bone marrow etiologic process after his pediatrician discovered progressive neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly accompanied by 2 days of fever. bone marrow aspirate and biopsy were nonrevealing. Because of the history of a recent tick bite, a diagnosis of ehrlichiosis infection was considered and ultimately confirmed by IgG-specific serum testing. The patient's fever was treated symptomatically with acetaminophen, and symptoms resolved on their own without intervention. ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne infection that occurs throughout the spring and summer, often causing findings that mimic a malignancy or serious hematologic disorder. The diagnosis should be considered in any person living in tick-infested areas and can be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction or serum antibody titers. Treatment with doxycycline can lead to rapid clinical improvement if the diagnosis is made early.
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keywords = lyme
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3/17. Successful diagnosis using scab for PCR specimen in Tsutsugamushi disease.

    We treated a case of Tsutsugamushi disease diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a scab specimen at the bite site of trombiculid mites. Otherwise the diagnosis could not be confirmed by serum antibody test nor the PCR test of blood. The genome of rickettsia tsutsugamushi was detected and identified as the Kawasaki serotype strain. An attempt to extract the genome from the scab has not been reported, thus our data suggest that the scab is a useful specimen to confirm the diagnosis of Tsutsugamushi disease.
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keywords = lyme
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4/17. Case report: rapid ante-mortem diagnosis of a human case of rabies imported into the UK from the philippines.

    The United Kingdom is free from rabies, with the last human death from indigenous rabies recorded in 1902. However, between 1946 and 2000, 20 deaths were reported in the United Kingdom in people who were bitten and infected while abroad in rabies endemic areas. The rapid diagnosis of suspected human rabies cases influences the use of anti-rabies post-exposure prophylaxis for potential contacts with the victim. In addition, the occurrence of a human rabies case requires urgent investigation to support patient management policies. In May 2001, a case of human rabies imported into the United Kingdom from the philippines was identified. A 55-year-old man was admitted to University College Hospital, london, with clinical symptoms and a history consistent with exposure to rabies. saliva, cerebrospinal fluid), and skin biopsies (from the wound site and nape of the neck) were submitted for conventional ante-mortem diagnostic techniques. Established diagnostic techniques, including the fluorescent antibody test (FAT), mouse inoculation test, (MIT) and the rabies tissue culture inoculation test (RTCIT), failed to detect the virus. In contrast, hemi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), followed by automated sequencing confirmed the presence of classical rabies virus (genotype 1) in both the saliva and skin specimens within 36 hr of sample submission. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this isolate was closely related to that of canine variants currently circulating in the philippines.
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keywords = lyme
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5/17. risk factors associated with travel to rabies endemic countries.

    Increased travel to exotic destinations around the world is escalating the risk that an emerging virus may be imported into the UK. Rabies should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any encephalitic illness presenting in an appropriate epidemiological context. Molecular diagnostic tests that can rapidly discriminate rabies from other suspected infections will influence the use of anti-rabies prophylaxis for potential contacts with the victim. In 2001, the UK had two confirmed human rabies cases, imported from the philippines and nigeria, respectively. In case one, hemi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (hn-RT-PCR) and automated sequencing confirmed the presence of rabies virus (RABV) within both the saliva and skin specimens within 36 h of sample submission. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis using a partial sequence of the nucleoprotein (N-) gene segment demonstrated that the virus was closely related to that of canine variants currently circulating in the philippines. In the second case, the fluorescent antibody test and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the diagnosis on post-mortem tissue. Phylogenetic analysis of two genomic segments of this isolate confirmed that it was a classical RABV (genotype 1) of the africa 2 subgroup. These cases have highlighted the capability of molecular diagnostic tests for the rapid identification and subsequent genotyping of RABV to host and geographical location. In the first instance, rabies diagnosis often rests on clinical and epidemiological grounds. Negative tests, even late in the illness, do not exclude the diagnosis as these tests are never optimal and are entirely dependent on the nature and quality of the sample supplied. For this reason, rapid molecular detection and virus typing will be essential in considering the appropriate medical treatment regimen for a patient. In addition, an early diagnosis may decrease the number of unnecessary contacts with the patient and reduce the requirement for invasive and costly interventions. Rabies should form part of a differential diagnosis for any patient presenting with a history of travel to a rabies endemic country and displaying an undiagnosed encephalopathy.
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ranking = 2
keywords = lyme
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6/17. Case report: isolation of a European bat lyssavirus type 2a from a fatal human case of rabies encephalitis.

    A 55-year-old bat conservationist was admitted to Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, scotland, on November 11, 2002, with an acute haematemesis. He gave a 5-day history of pain and paraesthesia in the left arm, followed by increasing weakness of his limbs with evidence of an evolving encephalitis with cerebellar involvement. The patient had never been vaccinated against rabies and did not receive postexposure treatment. Using a hemi-nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), saliva samples taken intravitam from different dates proved positive for rabies. A 400-bp region of the nucleoprotein gene was sequenced for confirmation and identified a strain of European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) type 2a. The diagnosis was confirmed using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and by RT-PCR on three brain samples (cerebellum, medulla, and hippocampus) taken at autopsy. In addition, a mouse inoculation test (MIT) was performed. Between 13 and 17 days postinfection, clinical signs of a rabies-like illness had developed in all five inoculated mice. brain smears from each infected animal were positive by the FAT and viable virus was isolated. This fatal incident is only the second confirmed case of an EBLV type-2 infection in a human after exposure to bats.
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keywords = lyme
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7/17. Concomitant tickborne encephalitis and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis.

    We report a patient with febrile illness and epidemiologic and clinical findings consistent with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis and tickborne encephalitis, in whom infection with anaplasma phagocytophilum was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction and seroconversion. Tickborne encephalitis virus infection was established by serum immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG antibodies.
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keywords = lyme
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8/17. Human sealpox resulting from a seal bite: confirmation that sealpox virus is zoonotic.

    The case of a marine mammal technician who sustained a seal-bite to the hand that produced a lesion clinically very similar to orf is described. sequence analysis of the viral dna amplified from the lesion by the polymerase chain reaction indicated that it was sealpox virus in origin. This is the first report providing unequivocal evidence that sealpox may be transmitted to humans and causes lesions very similar to orf.
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keywords = lyme
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9/17. travel-associated rabies in Austrian man.

    Rabies developed in an Austrian man after he was bitten by a dog in Agadir, morocco. Diagnosis was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The patient's girlfriend was bitten by the same dog, but she did not become ill.
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keywords = lyme
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10/17. subarachnoid hemorrhage due to borrelia burgdorferi-associated vasculitis.

    We report the case history of a patient who suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in association with early lyme neuroborreliosis. After a tick bite, this patient developed erythema chronicum migrans and complained of stinging radicular pain in both legs. A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed because of acute headache and nuchal rigidity, which revealed an occipital SAH. cerebrospinal fluid analysis provided further evidence of acute neuroborreliosis. Digital substraction angiography showed irregularities in the right posterior cerebral artery, which might be due to vasculitis, but no aneurysms.
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ranking = 11.60990051393
keywords = borreliosis
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