Cases reported "Bites and Stings"

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1/8. Disseminated cutaneous protothecosis in an immunocompromised host: a case report and literature review.

    Protothecosis is an infection caused by achloric algae of the genus prototheca. These organisms have been isolated from water, sewage, soil, and the slime flux of trees, and are a known cause of disease in other mammals. infection in humans occurs after traumatic inoculation, producing localized olecranon bursal or, rarely, systemic disease. Only two previous cases of disseminated cutaneous disease have been reported in patients with defective neutrophil function. We describe a rare case of widespread cutaneous dissemination occurring after an arthropod bite in an immunocompromised patient.
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keywords = mammal
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2/8. Risk to tourists posed by wild mammals in south africa.

    BACKGROUND: One of south africa's principal tourist attractions is the opportunity to encounter Africa's large mammals in the wild. Attacks by these mammals can be exceptionally newsworthy with potentially deleterious effects on tourism. Little is known about the risk of injury and death caused by wild mammals to visitors to south africa's nature reserves. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of fatal and nonfatal attacks on tourists by wild mammals in south africa and to ascertain avoidable factors, if any. methods: Commercial press records covering all South African newspapers archived at the Independent newspapers' central library were systematically reviewed for a 10-year period, January 1988 to December 1997 inclusive, to identify all deaths and injuries to domestic and international tourists resulting from encounters with wild mammals in south africa. All of these incidents were analyzed to ascertain avoidable factors. RESULTS: During the review period seven tourists, including two students from thailand and a German traveler, were killed by wild mammals in south africa. Three of the four deaths ascribed to lions resulted from tourists carelessly approaching prides on foot in lion reserves. A judicial inquiry found that the management of a KwaZulu-Natal Reserve was culpable for the remaining death. Tourist ignorance of animal behavior and flagrant disregard of rules contributed to the two fatalities involving hippopotami. The unusual behavior manifested by the bull elephant responsible for the final death, resulted from discomfort caused by a dental problem to this pachyderm. During the same period there were 14 nonfatal attacks on tourists, including five by hippo, three by buffalo, two by rhino, and one each by a lion, leopard, zebra and musth elephant. Only the latter occurred while the visitor was in a motor vehicle. Tourist ethological naivete and failure to determine the experience of trail guides prior to travel, resulted in inadvertent agonistic behavior, unnecessary risk-taking and avoidable injury. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study has shown that attacks on tourists by wild mammals in south africa are an uncommon cause of injury and death. Sensible precautions to minimize this risk include remaining in a secure motor vehicle or adequately fenced precincts while in the vicinity of large mammals, rigidly observing nature reserve instructions, never approaching animals that appear ill, malnourished, displaying aggressive behavior traits or female wild mammals with young, and demanding adequately trained and experienced game rangers when embarking on walking trails. Any behavior that might be construed as antagonistic and which could provoke an attack by large mammals should be avoided (e.g., driving directly at a lion). Visitors need to be informed of classic signs of aggression, in particular in elephants, which will allow timely avoidance measures to be taken. The risk-enhancing effect of excessive alcohol intake is undesirable in the game reserve setting, as is driving at high speed after dusk in areas where hippos graze. Local advice on personal safety in wildlife reserves and the credentials of trail guides should be obtained from lodge or reserve management, tourism authorities or the travel industry prior to travel to game reserves.
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ranking = 14
keywords = mammal
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3/8. Smitten by a kitten.

    Mammalian bite wounds are commonly encountered in the emergency department. When patients come early (<8 hours after injury), local infection is not usually evident. At this stage, the issue of providing prophylactic antibiotic therapy arises. We report a complication of a cat bite to the hand in a previously healthy 32-year-old man. This patient did not seek medical treatment immediately after the cat bite, and distinct local infection did not develop. Nevertheless, his course was complicated with acute staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. We discuss the common pathogens involved in a cat bite infection, including S aureus, and delineate the indications for prophylactic antibiotic therapy after a mammalian bite wound.
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keywords = mammal
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4/8. Human sealpox resulting from a seal bite: confirmation that sealpox virus is zoonotic.

    The case of a marine mammal technician who sustained a seal-bite to the hand that produced a lesion clinically very similar to orf is described. sequence analysis of the viral dna amplified from the lesion by the polymerase chain reaction indicated that it was sealpox virus in origin. This is the first report providing unequivocal evidence that sealpox may be transmitted to humans and causes lesions very similar to orf.
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5/8. Camel bites: report of severe osteolysis as late bone complications.

    Four cases of severe osteolysis of bones subsequent to camel bite are described. The first had osteolysis of the ribs with traumatic diaphragmatic hernia. Two cases had similar appearances of gross osteolysis of the shafts of the radius and ulna, whilst one had osteolysis of the humeral shaft. The similarities in the radiological appearances especially of the gross osteolysis at the site of trauma are noted. The complications following mammal bites are discussed.
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6/8. Nondomestic mammalian bites.

    life-threatening injuries resulting from wild animal bites are always treated first. Local wound management varies, depending on the type of wound and its location, but scrupulous cleansing and copious irrigation are mandatory. tetanus prophylaxis and rabies prophylaxis are provided according to accepted guidelines. antibiotic prophylaxis is not routinely necessary but is advisable for wounds of the hands or joints and for wounds in immunocompromised individuals.
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ranking = 4
keywords = mammal
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7/8. Human monkeypox transmitted by a chimpanzee in a tropical rain-forest area of Zaire.

    A case of monkeypox infection in a six-month-old baby girl who had been bitten by a wild chimpanzee in Kivu, Zaire, was investigated. The child had not been exposed to any monkeypox-like disease and no cases of such disease had occurred in the surrounding area during previous months. The time of onset of rash was consistent with the virus having been transmitted from the chimpanzee. However, it is still not known whether chimpanzees and other primates or lower mammals are the primary reservoir of monkeypox infection.
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keywords = mammal
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8/8. Wild platypus attack in the antipodes. A case report.

    The platypus (ornithorhynchus anatinus) is a furry duck-billed mammal that inhabits the waterways of eastern australia. The male may reach 60 cm in length with a 20 cm beaver-like tail. We report the case of an American naturalist stung whilst trying to study the male in the wild. This resulted in an intense local reaction. Warning signs should therefore be erected at air and sea ports warning tourists of the dangers of these venomous Australians.
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