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1/34. Preventing human rabies before and after exposure.

    Rabies is a viral disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans. Recently, most human deaths from rabies have been caused by transmission from bats, in many cases without a documented bite or exposure. Rabies is fatal if untreated prior to onset of symptoms. Deaths from human rabies in the united states are rare, largely because of animal control measures and postexposure prophylaxis of people who have been bitten or exposed to the virus. Primary care providers play a pivotal role in the prevention of rabies. Preexposure prevention involves education and immunization of persons at high risk for rabies exposure. Rabies is difficult to diagnose antemortem because of the nonspecific presentation of signs and symptoms that may mimic those of respiratory or abdominal infections. Diagnosing rabies once symptoms begin will not save the victim's life but will help to minimize exposure to others, allow for identification and prophylaxis of those who may have been exposed, and identify the animal vector.
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2/34. Survey of rabies preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis among missionary personnel stationed outside the united states.

    BACKGROUND: Of the 36 cases of human rabies that have occurred in the united states since 1980, 12 (33%) were presumed to have been acquired abroad. In the united states, it is recommended that international travelers likely to come in contact with animals in canine rabies-enzootic areas that lack immediate access to appropriate medical care, including vaccine and rabies immune globulin, should be considered for preexposure prophylaxis. In 1992, the death of an American missionary who had contracted rabies while stationed in bangladesh highlighted this high-risk group. methods: To assess their knowledge of rabies risk, rabies exposures, and compliance with preventive recommendations, we asked 695 missionaries and their family members to complete questionnaires about their time stationed abroad. RESULTS: Of the 293 respondents stationed in countries where rabies is endemic, 37% reported prior knowledge of the presence of rabies in their country of service. Only 28% of the personnel stationed in rabies-endemic countries received preexposure prophylaxis. Having preexposure prophylaxis specifically recommended increased the likelihood of actually receiving it (O.R. 15.6, 95%CI 7.4 - 34.9). There were 38 reported exposures (dogs = 66%, another human = 20%), proven or presumed to be rabid. Three of the people exposed received rabies immune globulin and vaccine; 11 received vaccine alone; 8 received only basic first aid, and 16 received no treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Although American missionaries stationed abroad are at an increased risk for exposure to rabies, compliance with established preventive measures was low. Prior to being stationed abroad, an educational rabies-prevention briefing, including encouragement to receive preexposure prophylaxis, could be an effective intervention for missionaries to decrease their risk of rabies.
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keywords = rabies
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3/34. Australian bat lyssavirus infection: a second human case, with a long incubation period.

    In December 1998, a 37-year-old queensland woman died from a rabies-like illness, 27 months after being bitten by a flying fox (fruit bat). Molecular techniques enabled diagnosis of infection with Australian bat lyssavirus (ABL), the second human case to be recognised and the first to be acquired from a flying fox. It must be assumed that any bat in australia could transmit ABL; anyone bitten or scratched by a bat should immediately wash the wounds thoroughly with soap and water and promptly seek medical advice.
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4/34. Rabies in israel: decades of prevention and a human case.

    Animal rabies is endemic in israel, with 50-80 laboratory-confirmed cases being diagnosed annually. Despite the high incidence among animals, human rabies has not occurred in israel for almost four decades. This is likely due to the highly effective prevention policy implemented by the Ministry of health, based on pre-exposure vaccination of populations at risk, post-exposure treatment, and updated rules. Notwithstanding the previous success, a human case occurred in 1996 when a soldier was bitten, while asleep, by an unidentified small animal, which according to his description was a rat or a mouse. Since injuries by these rodents do not require antirabies treatment, no antirabies post-exposure prophylaxis was administered. Five weeks later the soldier complained of fever and nausea with interchanging periods of rage and calm, confusion, and water aversion. His condition deteriorated gradually, leading to deep coma and death. Immunofluorescence examination of a skin biopsy was positive for rabies, and PCR of saliva revealed lyssavirus genotype 1. We review the changes in the epizootiology of rabies in israel, the trends of human exposure to animals, and the pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis guidelines, and discuss possible measures that could have been undertaken to prevent the eventuality of this case. This case of rabies, the first after a long period without human disease, accentuates the importance of strict adherence to prevention guidelines. Considerations of geography, epidemiology, and the circumstances of exposure are crucial in the treatment decision-making process.
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5/34. Cryptogenic rabies, bats, and the question of aerosol transmission.

    Human rabies is rare in the united states; however, an estimated 40,000 patients receive rabies postexposure prophylaxis each year. Misconceptions about the transmission of rabies are plentiful, particularly regarding bats. Most cases of human rabies caused by bat variants have no definitive history of animal bite. Three hypotheses are proposed and reviewed for the transmission of rabies from bats to human beings. They include nonbite transmission (including aerosol transmission), the alternate host hypothesis (an intermediate animal host that acquires rabies from a bat and then transmits rabies to human beings), and minimized or unrecognized bat bites. Nonbite transmission of rabies is very rare, and aerosol transmission has never been well documented in the natural environment. The known pathogenesis of rabies and available data suggest that all or nearly all cases of human rabies attributable to bats were transmitted by bat bites that were minimized or unrecognized by the patients.
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6/34. Bite by a dog under provocation: is it free from risk?

    There is a common belief that rabid dogs bite without provocation, hence a dog bite under provocation is free from the risk of rabies. This is not always true as is evident from the case report narrated below. Here in this article, a man of 38 years was bitten by a dog under provocation. He developed rabies 4 months after the bite and subsequently died. autopsy revealed Negri bodies from the brain tissue.
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keywords = rabies
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7/34. Case report: rapid ante-mortem diagnosis of a human case of rabies imported into the UK from the philippines.

    The United Kingdom is free from rabies, with the last human death from indigenous rabies recorded in 1902. However, between 1946 and 2000, 20 deaths were reported in the United Kingdom in people who were bitten and infected while abroad in rabies endemic areas. The rapid diagnosis of suspected human rabies cases influences the use of anti-rabies post-exposure prophylaxis for potential contacts with the victim. In addition, the occurrence of a human rabies case requires urgent investigation to support patient management policies. In May 2001, a case of human rabies imported into the United Kingdom from the philippines was identified. A 55-year-old man was admitted to University College Hospital, london, with clinical symptoms and a history consistent with exposure to rabies. saliva, cerebrospinal fluid), and skin biopsies (from the wound site and nape of the neck) were submitted for conventional ante-mortem diagnostic techniques. Established diagnostic techniques, including the fluorescent antibody test (FAT), mouse inoculation test, (MIT) and the rabies tissue culture inoculation test (RTCIT), failed to detect the virus. In contrast, hemi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), followed by automated sequencing confirmed the presence of classical rabies virus (genotype 1) in both the saliva and skin specimens within 36 hr of sample submission. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this isolate was closely related to that of canine variants currently circulating in the philippines.
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keywords = rabies
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8/34. risk factors associated with travel to rabies endemic countries.

    Increased travel to exotic destinations around the world is escalating the risk that an emerging virus may be imported into the UK. Rabies should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any encephalitic illness presenting in an appropriate epidemiological context. Molecular diagnostic tests that can rapidly discriminate rabies from other suspected infections will influence the use of anti-rabies prophylaxis for potential contacts with the victim. In 2001, the UK had two confirmed human rabies cases, imported from the philippines and nigeria, respectively. In case one, hemi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (hn-RT-PCR) and automated sequencing confirmed the presence of rabies virus (RABV) within both the saliva and skin specimens within 36 h of sample submission. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis using a partial sequence of the nucleoprotein (N-) gene segment demonstrated that the virus was closely related to that of canine variants currently circulating in the philippines. In the second case, the fluorescent antibody test and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the diagnosis on post-mortem tissue. Phylogenetic analysis of two genomic segments of this isolate confirmed that it was a classical RABV (genotype 1) of the africa 2 subgroup. These cases have highlighted the capability of molecular diagnostic tests for the rapid identification and subsequent genotyping of RABV to host and geographical location. In the first instance, rabies diagnosis often rests on clinical and epidemiological grounds. Negative tests, even late in the illness, do not exclude the diagnosis as these tests are never optimal and are entirely dependent on the nature and quality of the sample supplied. For this reason, rapid molecular detection and virus typing will be essential in considering the appropriate medical treatment regimen for a patient. In addition, an early diagnosis may decrease the number of unnecessary contacts with the patient and reduce the requirement for invasive and costly interventions. Rabies should form part of a differential diagnosis for any patient presenting with a history of travel to a rabies endemic country and displaying an undiagnosed encephalopathy.
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keywords = rabies
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9/34. Human rabies: a reemerging disease in costa rica?

    Two human rabies cases caused by a bat-associated virus variant were identified in September 2001 in costa rica, after a 31-year absence of the disease in humans. Both patients lived in a rural area where cattle had a high risk for bat bites, but neither person had a definitive history of being bitten by a rabid animal. Characterization of the rabies viruses from the patients showed that the reservoir was the hematophagous Vampire Bat, Desmodus rotundus, and that a sick cat was the vector.
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keywords = rabies
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10/34. Cat bite in an old patient: is it a simple injury?

    An 84-year-old woman bitten by her domestic cat developed a severe wound infection caused by pasteurella multocida. Although she was treated with antibiotics according to the bacterial sensitivity, the infection progressed to sepsis and became complicated by transient renal failure caused by interstitial nephritis. The need in the emergency department for a thorough examination of patients with domestic animal-inflicted injuries, the indication for surgical debridement, and the isolation of the offender by early obtained cultures are considered. The administration of the properly chosen antibiotics and prophylactic vaccination against rabies and tetanus are discussed.
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keywords = rabies
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