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1/61. Tick bite by Haemaphysalis megaspinosa - first case.

    We describe the first case of tick bite by Haemaphysalis megaspinosa. The tick was found on the skin at the right occipital area in a 5-year-old girl, who had gone on a picnic twice to a mountain 1 and 5 days before she noticed the tick. The tick was surgically removed. The tick was identified as an adult female of Haemaphysalis megaspinosa from its morphological characteristics. This is the first report of tick bite by Haemaphysalis megaspinosa.
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2/61. An incident involving blood sucking by a tick in a suburb in japan.

    We encountered a patient whose blood was sucked by Haemaphysalis longicornis in the suburb of a business city in Tokushima prefecture in japan. The tick, which had been attached to the lower limb of the patient for one week, measured 10 mm in length. There were no notable objective or subjective findings after the complete extirpation of the tick. The area had not been known in recent history to be a habitat of ticks, and, thus, this case is of importance in terms of predicting future trends of tick-borne diseases in japan.
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3/61. Amblyomma testudinarium tick bite: one case of engorged adult and a case of extraordinary number of larval tick infestation.

    This paper reports two recent cases of tick bite due to Amblyomma testudinarium. The first case was an 86-year-old farmer infested with a fully engorged adult tick attached on his inguinal region. The second case was a 57-year-old male infested with an extraordinarily large number of larval ticks (> 100 larvae). The ticks were identified as A. testudinarium based on morphological characteristics. To our knowledge, the latter case is the eleventh case of larval tick bites among all tick species and the fourth case with larval A. testudinarium in japan.
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4/61. Tick-bite-induced anaphylaxis in spain.

    Although there are very few reports of human anaphylaxis induced by tick bites, two such cases have recently been seen in Salamanca, spain. To identify the tick species responsible, salivary-gland extracts from six species of hard tick and two of soft tick were prepared and used as allergens/antigens in skin-prick tests and serological analyses. For each case, the results of the skin tests were positive for several species of hard tick but negative for the soft ticks. ELISA and western blots revealed high titres of IgG against hard ticks (but not soft ticks) in the sera from both cases. However, serum from only one of the cases was found to be ELISA- and western-blot-positive for tick-specific IgE. Accordingly, the anaphylaxis seen in one case was IgE-mediated whereas that in the other case appeared to be IgE-independent. In both cases, most of the tick-specific antibodies only recognized carbohydrate epitopes. High levels of cross-reactivity between the salivary-gland extracts from several species of hard tick made it impossible to identify which species was responsible for each anaphylactic reaction, although the immunological results seem to point to ixodes ricinus.
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5/61. Borrelia lonestari infection after a bite by an Amblyomma americanum tick.

    Erythematous rashes that are suggestive of early lyme disease have been associated with the bite of Amblyomma americanum ticks, particularly in the southern united states. However, borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, has not been cultured from skin biopsy specimens from these patients, and diagnostic serum antibodies usually have not been found. Borrelia lonestari sp nov, an uncultured spirochete, has been detected in A. americanum ticks by dna amplification techniques, but its role in human illness is unknown. We observed erythema migrans in a patient with an attached A. americanum tick. dna amplification of the flagellin gene flaB produced B. lonestari sequences from the skin of the patient that were identical to those found in the attached tick. B. lonestari is a probable cause of erythema migrans in humans.
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6/61. Human monocytic ehrlichiosis: an emerging pathogen in transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: The spectrum of disease caused by Ehrlichia spp. ranges from asymptomatic to fatal. awareness and early diagnosis of the infection is paramount because appropriate therapy leads to rapid defervescence and cure. If left untreated, particularly in immunosuppressed patients, ehrlichioses may result in multi-system organ failure and death. methods: We report the second case of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) in a liver transplant recipient, and review the literature. RESULTS: The patient presented with fever and headache, had negative cultures, and despite broad-spectrum antimicrobial coverage appeared progressively septic. After eliciting a history of tick exposure we treated the patient empirically with doxycycline. The diagnosis of HME was confirmed by 1) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for ehrlichia chaffeensis, 2) acute and convalescent serum titers, and 3) in vitro cultivation of E chaffeensis from peripheral blood. CONCLUSION: Although human ehrlichioses are relatively uncommon, they are emerging as clinically significant arthropod-borne infections. Although epidemiological exposure is responsible for infection, immunosuppression makes patients more likely to succumb to disease. A high index of suspicion and early treatment results in a favorable outcome.
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7/61. ehrlichiosis infection in a 5-year-old boy with neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly.

    ehrlichiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient with recent fever, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and history of tick exposure. We present a previously healthy 5-year-old boy who was referred to the hematology-Oncology Clinic to consider a bone marrow etiologic process after his pediatrician discovered progressive neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly accompanied by 2 days of fever. bone marrow aspirate and biopsy were nonrevealing. Because of the history of a recent tick bite, a diagnosis of ehrlichiosis infection was considered and ultimately confirmed by IgG-specific serum testing. The patient's fever was treated symptomatically with acetaminophen, and symptoms resolved on their own without intervention. ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne infection that occurs throughout the spring and summer, often causing findings that mimic a malignancy or serious hematologic disorder. The diagnosis should be considered in any person living in tick-infested areas and can be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction or serum antibody titers. Treatment with doxycycline can lead to rapid clinical improvement if the diagnosis is made early.
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8/61. Persistent atypical lymphocytic hyperplasia following tick bite in a child: report of a case and review of the literature.

    We report a 6-year-old girl who developed a red papule on the posterior neck at the site of a previous tick bite. Initial biopsy was performed a year after the bite and the specimen showed a dense lymphoid infiltrate with admixed CD30 cells. The patient was referred to our center because of concern about the development of a CD30 lymphoproliferative disorder. The lesion was completely excised. histology showed no evidence of a clonal lymphoproliferative disorder or Borrelia infection, but persistence of CD30 cells. This case demonstrates that a tick bite reaction can persist for more than 1 year and show immunophenotypic and morphologic overlap with a CD30 lymphoproliferative disorder. Complete history with thorough clinical and histopathologic evaluation is necessary to arrive at the correct diagnosis.
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9/61. Outbreak of African tick-bite fever in six Italian tourists returning from South Africa.

    In May 1999, a cluster of cases of African tick-bite fever was detected in six Italian tourists who had returned from south africa. All of the patients had moderate fever and cutaneous eschars. Regional lymphangitis was observed in three of the patients and skin rash in two. By comparing the number of eschars with the number of detectable bite sites it was suggested that at least two-thirds of the biting vectors were capable of transmitting rickettsia africae. The clinical course of disease was mild in all cases, and all but one of the patients recovered spontaneously before antibiotic treatment was initiated. The diagnosis of African tick-bite fever was confirmed serologically using both microimmunofluorescence and Western blot tests.
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10/61. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. How to remove a tick.

    A short cut review was carried out to establish whether there was any evidence to decide between the various described methods of tick removal. Altogether 40 papers were found using the reported search, of which two presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these best papers are tabulated. A clinical bottom line is stated.
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