Cases reported "Bites and Stings"

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11/20. staphylococcus intermedius: clinical presentation of a new human dog bite pathogen.

    staphylococcus intermedius is a Gram-positive, coagulase-positive coccus that can be distinguished from staphylococcus aureus by routine microbiological testing. Whereas S intermedius is recognized as flora and pathogen of dogs, it has never been isolated from human infections. We hypothesized that S intermedius may cause human dog bite wound infections and that it has been previously misidentified as S aureus. Fourteen isolates from clinically infected dog bite wounds that were originally identified as S aureus were subjected to further testing; three (22%) were found to be S intermedius. The clinical and microbiological characteristics of these three S intermedius cases are described. All three patients were nonimmunocompromised persons seen within 24 hours for bites on the upper extremity. All patients developed cellulitis within one to three days. All S intermedius isolates were distinguished from S aureus by the lack of acetoin production and by the presence of beta-galactosidase activity. S intermedius was susceptible to a wide range of antibiotics; one isolate was resistant to penicillin. Two patients were treated with penicillin, one with amoxicillin-clavulanate, and all were clinically cured. These are the first three reported human infections involving S intermedius. Further study is necessary to define its clinical importance as a potential human pathogen.
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keywords = wound infection
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12/20. Initial antibiotic therapy for alligator bites: characterization of the oral flora of Alligator mississippiensis.

    An open thumb fracture resulting from an alligator bite became infected with aeromonas hydrophila, enterobacter agglomerans, and citrobacter diversus. The patient was treated by surgical debridement and antibiotic therapy. We obtained cultures from the mouth of ten alligators to characterize their oral flora. Initial empiric therapy after alligator bites should be directed at gram-negative species, in particular, aeromonas hydrophila and anaerobic species including clostridium. Of the numerous fungi that were isolated, none has been reported to result in wound infection after alligator bites.
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13/20. Pig bite injuries and infection: report of seven human cases.

    Six patients developed local infection after being bitten or gored by swine. Wounding was often deep and occurred characteristically on the posterior aspect of the thigh. Severity of infection varied from simple wound infection with discharge and slough to cellulitis and abscess formation; pathogens included haemolytic streptococci, pasteurellae, bacteroides sp., proteus sp. and escherichia coli and were usually isolated in mixed culture. A patient with Pasteurella aerogenes infection appears to be the first reported in england. A seventh patient developed streptococcus milleri septicaemia after wounding himself while cutting teeth from piglets. It is suggested that a course of broad-spectrum antibiotics should be given as part of the initial treatment when patients present with the more severe pig bite injuries.
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14/20. pasteurella multocida wound infections--a commonly unrecognized problem in the casualty department.

    Wounds inflicted by animal bites are a common cause of attendance at casualty units. Many of these injuries are of little consequence, but if they are inappropriately treated, serious consequences can ensue. pasteurella multocida is a common contaminant of wounds inflicted by domestic animals, in particular cats. We report here a series of six severe P. multocida wound infections, and refer to the current literature on the subject. Strains of P. multocida isolated from some wounds failed to respond to conventional chemotherapy with penicillin.
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15/20. pasteurella multocida in an infected tiger bite.

    We report an unusual case of pasteurella multocida wound infection caused by a tiger bite. We investigated the normal fang flora of large zoo cats and found P multocida in cultures from seven tigers, three of four leopards, and one lynx. sucrose fermentation was found to be highly media dependent and unpredictable. The literature relative to P multocida in bite-wound infections is reviewed with special reference to bites by animals other than cats and dogs. With the addition of the present case, the animals involved have been two rats, two opossums, two lions, one horse, one rabbit, one boar, one panther, and one tiger.
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16/20. pasteurella multocida infections. Report of 34 cases and review of the literature.

    pasteurella multocida, a small, gram-negative coccobacillus , is part of the normal oral flora of many animals, including the dog and cat. P. multocida is the etiologic agent in a variety of infectious disease syndromes. We have reported 34 cases of infection caused by P. multocida and have reviewed the English literature. P. multocida infections may be divided into three broad groups: 1. Infections resulting from animal bites and scratches : The most common infections caused by P. multocida are local wound infections following animal bites or scratches . cats are the source of infection in 60 to 80% of cases and dogs in the great majority of the remainder. Local infections are characterized by the rapid appearance of erythema, warmth, tenderness, and frequently purulent drainage. The most common local complications are abscess formation and tenosynovitis. Serious local complications include septic arthritis proximal to bites or scratches , osteomyelitis resulting from direct inoculation or extension of cellulitis, and the combination of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis, most commonly involving a finger or hand after a cat bite. 2. Isolation of P. multocida from the respiratory tract: The isolation of P. multocida from the respiratory tract must be interpreted differently than its isolation from other systemic sites. Most commonly P. multocida found in the respiratory tract is a commensal organism in patients with underlying pulmonary disease, but serious respiratory tract infections including pneumonia, empyema, and lung abscesses may develop. Most patients with respiratory tract colonization or infection have a history of animal exposure. 3. Other systemic infections: P. multocida is recognized as a pathogen in a variety of systemic infections including bacteremia, meningitis, brain abscess, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and intra-abdominal abscess. P. multocida often acts as an opportunistic pathogen with a predilection for causing bacteremia in patients with liver dysfunction, septic arthritis in damaged joints, meningitis in the very young or elderly, and pulmonary colonization or invasion in patients with underlying respiratory tract abnormalities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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17/20. Microvascular replantation of avulsed tissue after a dog bite of the face.

    Various authors have described successful microsurgical replantation of totally avulsed facial tissue. In a significant number of cases difficulties were experienced with the venous anastomoses and/or venous drainage of the tissue. Many different methods were used to overcome the problem. Despite these difficulties, good cosmetic and functional results were reported. These injuries are often caused by animal bites. Adequate wound care and the excellent local blood supply make immediate reconstruction after animal bites of the face a safe procedure. Other authors describing similar lesions and immediate repair have not reported the complication of wound infection. We report on a patient who suffered a dog bite with total avulsion of most of the left upper lip, cheek and left alar rim. Venous congestion was overcome by multiple needle punctures to drain blood from the outer surface of the flap and local of application of heparin. A good cosmetic result and the return of sensation and function of the orbicularis oris muscle were obtained.
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18/20. Three cases of pasteurella multocida skin infection from pet cats.

    We encountered three cases of pasteurella multocida skin infection from pet cats. P. multocida wound infections are characterized by acute onset of erythema, pain, and swelling. This infection has rarely been reported in dermatology journals from japan.
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19/20. wound infection caused by staphylococcus hyicus subspecies hyicus after a donkey bite.

    staphylococcus hyicus subspecies hyicus has not previously been reported to cause human infections, but is a well known cause of diseases in a variety of animals. We report a wound infection following a donkey bite.
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20/20. Problems of identification in clinical microbiology exemplified by pig bite wound infections.

    Our experience from attempts to identify bacteria isolated from boar bite/gore wounds is the background for a discussion of identification problems. Some organisms, although not very common or well-known, can be identified when using commercial kits or conventional methods, provided they are sufficiently characterized, as exemplified by Pasteurella aerogenes isolated from cases 1 and 2. Some organisms may be wrongly identified, or not identified, by both commercial kits and conventional methods, unless seen by experienced microbiologists with knowledge of the original literature. This is exemplified by case 3, in which the final identification result was Bisgaard's taxon 15. Sometimes isolates cannot be identified even in reference laboratories and by using available identification tables and databases. In such cases, the organism involved may turn out to belong to a previously undescribed taxon. This is illustrated by the strains isolated from cases 4 and 5.
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