Cases reported "Bites And Stings"

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1/563. Benign idiopathic partial epilepsy and brain lesion.

    A 14-year-old girl had severe head trauma from a dog bite at the age of 9 days. This resulted in extensive brain damage, tetraplegia, mental retardation, and epilepsy. The seizures were of rolandic type, and the EEG showed multifocal sharp waves. The course was benign. The initial diagnosis of a pure symptomatic epilepsy was revised after demonstrating typical benign focal sharp waves in the EEG of the healthy sister. Thus a phenocopy of a benign partial epilepsy by the brain lesion could be excluded with sufficient certainty. This observation allows the conclusion that the genetic disposition underlying the sharp-wave trait characteristic of benign partial epilepsies can be involved also in the pathogenesis of seemingly pure symptomatic epilepsies. EEG studies on siblings of such patients are needed to exclude possible phenocopies. ( info)

2/563. Disseminated cutaneous protothecosis in an immunocompromised host: a case report and literature review.

    Protothecosis is an infection caused by achloric algae of the genus prototheca. These organisms have been isolated from water, sewage, soil, and the slime flux of trees, and are a known cause of disease in other mammals. infection in humans occurs after traumatic inoculation, producing localized olecranon bursal or, rarely, systemic disease. Only two previous cases of disseminated cutaneous disease have been reported in patients with defective neutrophil function. We describe a rare case of widespread cutaneous dissemination occurring after an arthropod bite in an immunocompromised patient. ( info)

3/563. Fulminant infection by uncommon organisms in animal bite wounds.

    In 1995 and 1996, 215 patients exposed to different species of animals were treated at the Amarnath Polyclinic, Balasore, in india. Among them were two children infected by uncommon organisms, i.e., capnocytophaga canimorsus and pasteurella multocida; the patients recovered with appropriate antibiotic therapy. ( info)

4/563. Preventing human rabies before and after exposure.

    rabies is a viral disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans. Recently, most human deaths from rabies have been caused by transmission from bats, in many cases without a documented bite or exposure. rabies is fatal if untreated prior to onset of symptoms. Deaths from human rabies in the united states are rare, largely because of animal control measures and postexposure prophylaxis of people who have been bitten or exposed to the virus. Primary care providers play a pivotal role in the prevention of rabies. Preexposure prevention involves education and immunization of persons at high risk for rabies exposure. rabies is difficult to diagnose antemortem because of the nonspecific presentation of signs and symptoms that may mimic those of respiratory or abdominal infections. Diagnosing rabies once symptoms begin will not save the victim's life but will help to minimize exposure to others, allow for identification and prophylaxis of those who may have been exposed, and identify the animal vector. ( info)

5/563. The medusa stage of the coronate scyphomedusa Linuche unguiculata ('thimble jellyfish') can cause seabather's eruption.

    adult Linuche unguiculata medusae cause seabather's eruption just like that animal's larval form. This observation explains the wide seasonal incidence and the fact that lesions can appear on exposed skin. ( info)

6/563. pasteurella multocida meningitis and septic arthritis secondary to a cat bite.

    Animal bites are seen almost daily in the emergency department, and the majority heal without complication. pasteurella multocida is frequently the causative organism of localized wound infections and cellulitis in this patient population. P. multocida infection is usually associated with close contact with pets, such as dogs and cats, that harbor this organism as normal oral flora. meningitis and septic arthritis are very rare sequelae of P. multocida infection. This case report presents a patient with P. multocida bacteremia, meningitis, and septic arthritis developing together as a complication of a cat bite. ( info)

7/563. Hemolytic uremic syndrome due to capnocytophaga canimorsus bacteremia after a dog bite.

    The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is known to have several causes, including infectious diseases, drugs, pregnancy, and malignant disease. We report a patient who developed acute renal failure attributable to HUS in the course of capnocytophaga canimorsus bacteremia. Acute tubular necrosis as well as HUS should be considered as a cause of acute renal failure in the setting of capnocytophaga canimorsus bacteremia. ( info)

8/563. An unusual stingray injury--the skindiver at risk.

    Serious abdominal injury following a stingray attack on a skindiver is described. knowledge of the creature's habits and the avoidance of swimming along the seabed are recommended as precautionary measures against such an injury. ( info)

9/563. Lycanthropy in depression: two case reports.

    Two cases of lycanthropy presenting as part of a depressive disorder are described. The patients responded favorably to pharmacotherapy. In both cases, a positive history of dog bite influenced the presentation of symptoms. The authors speculate whether the defense of identification with the aggressor was operative. ( info)

10/563. Risk to tourists posed by wild mammals in south africa.

    BACKGROUND: One of south africa's principal tourist attractions is the opportunity to encounter Africa's large mammals in the wild. Attacks by these mammals can be exceptionally newsworthy with potentially deleterious effects on tourism. Little is known about the risk of injury and death caused by wild mammals to visitors to south africa's nature reserves. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of fatal and nonfatal attacks on tourists by wild mammals in south africa and to ascertain avoidable factors, if any. methods: Commercial press records covering all South African newspapers archived at the Independent newspapers' central library were systematically reviewed for a 10-year period, January 1988 to December 1997 inclusive, to identify all deaths and injuries to domestic and international tourists resulting from encounters with wild mammals in south africa. All of these incidents were analyzed to ascertain avoidable factors. RESULTS: During the review period seven tourists, including two students from thailand and a German traveler, were killed by wild mammals in south africa. Three of the four deaths ascribed to lions resulted from tourists carelessly approaching prides on foot in lion reserves. A judicial inquiry found that the management of a KwaZulu-Natal Reserve was culpable for the remaining death. Tourist ignorance of animal behavior and flagrant disregard of rules contributed to the two fatalities involving hippopotami. The unusual behavior manifested by the bull elephant responsible for the final death, resulted from discomfort caused by a dental problem to this pachyderm. During the same period there were 14 nonfatal attacks on tourists, including five by hippo, three by buffalo, two by rhino, and one each by a lion, leopard, zebra and musth elephant. Only the latter occurred while the visitor was in a motor vehicle. Tourist ethological naivete and failure to determine the experience of trail guides prior to travel, resulted in inadvertent agonistic behavior, unnecessary risk-taking and avoidable injury. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study has shown that attacks on tourists by wild mammals in south africa are an uncommon cause of injury and death. Sensible precautions to minimize this risk include remaining in a secure motor vehicle or adequately fenced precincts while in the vicinity of large mammals, rigidly observing nature reserve instructions, never approaching animals that appear ill, malnourished, displaying aggressive behavior traits or female wild mammals with young, and demanding adequately trained and experienced game rangers when embarking on walking trails. Any behavior that might be construed as antagonistic and which could provoke an attack by large mammals should be avoided (e.g., driving directly at a lion). Visitors need to be informed of classic signs of aggression, in particular in elephants, which will allow timely avoidance measures to be taken. The risk-enhancing effect of excessive alcohol intake is undesirable in the game reserve setting, as is driving at high speed after dusk in areas where hippos graze. Local advice on personal safety in wildlife reserves and the credentials of trail guides should be obtained from lodge or reserve management, tourism authorities or the travel industry prior to travel to game reserves. ( info)
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