Cases reported "Blast Crisis"

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1/354. Clonally unrelated BCR-ABL-negative acute myeloblastic leukemia masquerading as blast crisis after busulphan and interferon therapy for BCR-ABL-positive chronic myeloid leukemia.

    We report a patient with Philadelphia (Ph)-positive, BCR-ABL rearrangement positive, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with a prolonged chronic phase of 24 years who was first prescribed alpha-2 interferon 22 years after initial diagnosis. This therapy was tolerated poorly on account of thrombocytopenia, but an eventual major cytogenetic response was followed soon afterwards by transformation to terminal acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Cytogenetic studies indicated that the transformed myeloblasts were karyotypically normal and Ph negative. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of total leukemic mRNA remained BCR-ABL positive, other molecular studies, including Southern blotting and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses, showed that myeloblasts were BCR-ABL rearrangement negative. PCR-based clonality studies using an X-chromosome-linked restriction fragment polymorphism within the phosphoglycerate kinase gene (PGK1) further showed that the Ph-negative blast cells had a different clonal origin from the Ph-positive clone of chronic phase. We suggest that cases of underlying Ph-negative leukemic transformation in Ph-positive CML warrant further study and should be considered for trial of intensive remission induction therapy as appropriate for acute leukemia.
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ranking = 1
keywords = leukemia, myeloid leukemia, m
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2/354. blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia exhibiting immunophenotypic features of a myeloid/natural killer cell precursor.

    We report a patient with philadelphia chromosome (Ph1)-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) which transformed into blast crisis bearing the immunophenotypic features similar to those of the myeloid/natural killer (NK) cell precursor leukemia we proposed previously. Using a CD45 blast gating method, the myeloperoxidase-negative blasts were positive for CD7, CD13, CD33, CD34, CD56, and HLA-DR, but no other lymphoid antigens. Southern blot analysis showed germ line T cell receptor beta and delta genes and immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes. Although NK cell blastic transformation with Ph1 positive CML has been reported in a single patient, this is, to our knowledge, the first report of CML blast crisis of myeloid/NK cell precursor origin.
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ranking = 0.35394756862302
keywords = leukemia, m
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3/354. Extramedullary tumors of myeloid blasts in adults as a pattern of relapse following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: Extramedullary tumors of lymphoid and myeloid blasts outside the well-defined sanctuaries following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) are rare. Little is known about the biology, treatment, and outcome of these tumors in this setting. methods: In this retrospective analysis, 134 consecutive patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who underwent allo-BMT at a single institution between 1990 and 1998 were reviewed. Five cases of isolated extramedullary myeloid sarcoma that occurred as patterns of recurrence following allo-BMT between 1990 and 1998 are reported. These patients were treated with radiotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, or a second allo-BMT. Clinical outcome is compared with posttransplantation bone marrow relapses observed during the same period at the same institution. The literature on the clinical characteristics, currently available treatment, and outcome of posttransplantation myeloid sarcoma patients was reviewed. RESULTS: Excluding isolated skin and central nervous system recurrences, the frequency of extramedullary myeloid sarcoma encountered as a relapse pattern following allo-BMT was determined to be 3.7% among patients with acute or chronic leukemia of myeloid origin. The survival of patients who were managed with radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy was less than 4 months. A patient who underwent a second allo-BMT following local radiotherapy is alive and in complete remission more than 33 months after the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. The median survival of 17 patients with posttransplantation bone marrow relapse following allo-BMT was 2.2 months. When posttransplantation medullary recurrences are analyzed, patients with CML had a median survival of 12 months, with a significantly better 5-year survival rate than patients with AML (0 vs. 60%, P = 0.015; median survival, 12 months). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical outcomes of patients with recurrent isolated extramedullary myeloid sarcoma following allo-BMT are poor, as in any leukemic relapse, with the exception of patients with CML in this setting.
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ranking = 0.29401637912307
keywords = leukemia, myeloid leukemia, m
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4/354. ABL amplification in a patient with lymphoid blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukaemia.

    Although chronic phase myelogenous leukaemia (CML) is characterised by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome leading to a fusion of the BCR and ABL genes, additional genetic alterations involved in blast crisis are poorly understood. We report an at least 15-fold amplification of the ABL oncogene in a 29-year-old male patient with a variant Ph-positive t(19;22)(p13;q11.2) CML who presented in lymphoid blast crisis. Our finding suggests that an amplification of the ABL oncogene might play a part in the appearance of an aggressive phenotype in some cases of CML.
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ranking = 4.5063850291917E-6
keywords = m
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5/354. Long-term third chronic phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia maintained by interferon-alpha and methotrexate.

    The prognosis of blast crisis (BC) of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is extremely poor despite many efforts to induce remission with chemotherapy. We have recently treated a long-surviving CML patient who developed three separate episodes of BC. The administration of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) alone as maintenance therapy was incapable of preventing BC, which occurred twice in the first 2 years after the diagnosis of CML. Intensive chemotherapy using enocitabine, mitoxantrone, and etoposide was effective to induce hematological remission. Thereafter once per week oral administration of methotrexate (10-15 mg/week) was combined with IFN-alpha after the second BC. This treatment succeeded in obtaining a major cytogenetic response and keeping him in third chronic phase for 5 years until the last most recent third BC. We present here the rare clinical course of the patient, review the past literature, and discuss the efficacy of the combination of IFN-alpha and methotrexate in this disease.
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ranking = 0.29495809818503
keywords = leukemia, m
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6/354. Biphenotypic (mixed myeloid/T-cell) extramedullary myeloid cell tumor.

    A 32-year-old male with a 4-year history of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in chronic phase for 4 years, then myeloid blast crisis for 7 months, developed diffuse bulky lymphadenopathy in association with a white blood count (WBC) of 17,100/mm3 with 70% blasts. biopsy of a cervical lymph node revealed a blastic extramedullary myeloid cell tumor, which showed a biphenotypic (mixed myeloid/T-cell) immunophenotype. Chromosomal analysis revealed karyotypic features of both myeloid and lymphoid lineages. Although extramedullary myeloid cell tumor (EMT, granulocytic sarcoma, chloroma) is well known to occur in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), to our knowledge this is the first description of evolution of CML into a biphenotypic EMT.
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ranking = 0.11798847361355
keywords = leukemia, m
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7/354. Cytogenetic divergence of the same blastic clone in transformed chronic granulocytic leukemia: no effect on morphologic and immunologic features.

    A 19-year-old man with Ph-positive chronic granulocytic leukemia developed lymphoblastic transformation. Cytogenetic evolution was observed, with an abnormal clone showing i(17q) together with the t(9;22). Chronic phase of the chronic granulocytic leukemia were re-established with systemic chemotherapy, which also led to disappearance of the clone with i(17q). However, the acute lymphoblastic leukemia relapsed after 6 weeks, with the emergence of a phenotypically and genetically identical but cytogenetically distinctive clone. Our findings suggest that cytogenetic evolution in transformed chronic granulocytic leukemia reflects only the instability of the blastic clones, and may not determine its phenotypic differentiation.
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ranking = 0.47192806940151
keywords = leukemia, m
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8/354. Unusual clinical course and acquisition of del(11)(q23) in second lymphatic blastic phase of a Ph-positive chronic myeloid leukemia.

    We describe unusual clinical and cytogenetic findings of a 29-year-old female with a philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), who showed a mosaic of apparently normal cells and cells bearing the classical t(9;22)(q34;q11) during the first lymphatic blastic phase (BP). The second lymphatic BP developed 10 years later. In addition to the t(9;22), which was detected in all metaphases, a del(11)(q23) was identified as a subclonal change in 4 of 25 metaphases. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using a chromosome 11-specific library probe and a probe covering the breakpoint cluster region of the MLL gene revealed hybridization signals of both probes on the normal and the deleted chromosome 11, indicating that the breakpoint on chromosome 11 occurred telomerically to the breakpoint cluster region of the MLL gene. Chemotherapeutic treatment resulted in reconstitution of the chronic phase with persistence of the Ph translocation as the sole chromosomal abnormality.
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ranking = 0.58754014674126
keywords = leukemia, myeloid leukemia, m
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9/354. Chromosomal aneuploidy in leukemic blast crisis: a potential source of error in interpretation of bone marrow engraftment analysis by VNTR amplification.

    BACKGROUND: polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of polymorphic microsatellite or minisatellite dna markers has proven to be a fast, sensitive, and specific technique in post-transplantation monitoring of bone marrow engraftment, as well as early detection of residual disease and relapse. Deletion or amplification of chromosomal segments carrying marker loci, as can occur in leukemia and other hematologic malignancies, may result in loss or increased dosage of marker alleles. Examination of these marker alleles by PCR therefore may give aberrant results, which might lead to misinterpretation of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) engraftment studies. methods AND RESULTS: We report a case of chronic myelogenous leukemia treated by BMT. PCR amplification of the minisatellite at the apoB locus on chromosome 2 was used to monitor the donor bone marrow engraftment. The patient experienced relapse in blast crisis with a near-haploid karyotype with loss of recipient-specific apoB allele causing an aberrant PCR result for bone marrow engraftment that mimicked full donor engraftment. CONCLUSIONS: Loss or gain of polymorphic dna markers because of chromosomal losses or gains in some hematologic malignancies may affect the interpretation of bone marrow engraftment studies by PCR. When choosing polymorphic markers for such studies, it is important to avoid those that will be affected by expected chromosomal alteration, if possible. In addition, any abberant post-transplantation typing should prompt further investigation to rule out the possibility of chromosomal aberration. review of all pertinent laboratory studies is important to avoid misinterpretation of results from a single test for engraftment analysis.
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ranking = 0.11799523319109
keywords = leukemia, m
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10/354. Smoldering acute myelogenous leukemia in the elderly.

    Out of 75 consecutive elderly AML patients who did not receive anti-leukemic treatment (52 pts) or failed to respond to differentiating agent (23 pts), 6 patients had survivals of 13.2 to 98 months with treatment restricted to supportive care. This cut-point is far longer than the median survival of the 235 elderly patients (3.5 mo.), either untreated (med. survival: 1 mo.) or treated (with treatment ranging from conventional induction to palliative chemotherapy) (4 mo.), admitted to our department within the same period of time. These cases of smoldering AML (4 women, 2 men) were all of AML2 FAB subtype (4 de novo, 2 post MDS) and presented with a significantly better performance status, lower WBC and circulating blast counts, higher platelet counts and with lower bone marrow infiltration than AML cases with more rapid progression. Cytogenetical analysis when available (3 pts) showed normal karyotypes and clonogenic assay performed in 3 of these patients showed a lack of (2 pts) or reduced in vitro leukemic cell growth (1 pt). The identification of specific characteristics of smoldering leukemia in the elderly might be an important development in the understanding of the physiopathology of acute leukemia and a tool for helping decision-making when selecting the time and intensity of cytotoxic treatment in these older patients.
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ranking = 0.35394895520303
keywords = leukemia, m
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