Cases reported "Blast Injuries"

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1/89. Multifocal cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal following blast injury.

    Posttraumatic cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal is a rare condition that may present years after the original injury. A unique case of multifocal cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal following blast injury is presented and discussed.
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2/89. Systolic pressure variation in hemodynamic monitoring after severe blast injury.

    Fluid management in patients following blast injury is a major challenge. Fluid overload can exacerbate pulmonary dysfunction, whereas suboptimal resuscitation may exacerbate tissue damage. In three patients, we compared three methods of assessing volume status: central venous (CVP) and pulmonary artery occlusion (PAOP) pressures, left ventricular end-diastolic area (LVEDA) as measured by transesophageal echocardiography, and systolic pressure variation (SPV) of arterial blood pressure. All three patients were mechanically ventilated with high airway pressures (positive end-expiratory pressure 13 to 15 cm H2O, pressure control ventilation of 25 to 34 cm H2O, and I:E 2:1). central venous pressure and PAOP were elevated in two of the patients (CVP 14 and 18 mmHg, PAOP 25 and 17 mmHg), and were within normal limits in the third (CVP 5 mmHg, PAOP 6 mmHg). Transesophageal echocardiography was performed in two patients and suggested a diagnosis of hypovolemia (LVEDA 2.3 and 2.7 cm2, shortening fraction 52% and 40%). Systolic pressure variation was elevated in all three patients (15 mmHg, 15 mmHg, and 20 mmHg), with very prominent dDown (23, 40, and 30 mmHg) and negative dUp components, thus corroborating the diagnosis of hypovolemia. Thus, in patients who are mechanically ventilated with high airway pressures, SPV may be a helpful tool in the diagnosis of hypovolemia.
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3/89. Extensive facial damage caused by a blast injury arising from a 6 volt lead accumulator.

    Low-voltage electrical injuries are relatively uncommon. Injury caused by flow of heavy current due to short-circuiting a low-voltage battery has not been described in the English literature. A 9-year-old boy connected two thin household electrical wires to the two terminals of a 6 volt (lead accumulator) battery and pressed the other two ends between his teeth. This resulted in a blast causing a compound comminuted fracture of the mandible and extensive tissue damage in the oral cavity. The low internal resistance of a lead accumulator (approximately 0.03 ohms) permits the flow of a heavy current (approximately 200 amps) when short-circuited. This instantaneously vaporises a minuscule portion of wire at approximately 2000 K resulting in a sudden rise of intraoral pressure to 30 kg cm-2 leading to tissue damage.
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4/89. An open fracture of the ulna with bone loss, treated by bone transport.

    We report a Gustilo and Anderson IIIc fracture of the ulna with 8 cm of bone loss which was reconstructed primarily by the technique of external fixation and bone transport. Five operations were performed over a period of 14 months (treatment index = 52.5 days/cm). A satisfactory functional result was achieved, demonstrating the efficacy of this technique for difficult forearm reconstructions and comparing favourably with other methods of managing large bone and soft tissue defects.
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keywords = forearm
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5/89. Experience with regional flaps in the comprehensive treatment of maxillofacial soft-tissue injuries in war victims.

    This article presents our experience with regional flaps in the treatment of facial soft-tissue defects and deformities in 33 patients with various facial injuries from warfare during the period from 1986 to 1999. Thirty-two males and 1 female aged between 8 and 53 years (mean 24.18 years) were treated with facial soft-tissue injuries from high velocity projectiles and varying degrees of associated hard-tissue injuries. Bullets were the most common cause (70%), followed by injuries from shrapnel (21%), land mines (6%), and breech blocks (3%). The perioral region was involved in 15 cases (45%), the midface and cheeks were involved in 13 cases (39%), and the periorbital area was involved in 5 cases (15%). All soft-tissue injuries were treated primarily by debridement and primary closure and by combining, modifying, and tailoring standard regional flap techniques to fit the location of the injury and compensate for the extent of tissue loss. These procedures consisted basically of local-advancement or rotation-advancement flaps, used in conjunction with pedicled fat or subcutaneous supporting flaps, nasolabial, cheek, cervical, Dieffenbach, and Abbe-type flaps. Scar revision, tissue repositioning, and lengthening procedures, such as W, V-Y, Z, or multiple Z-plasty techniques were also used both primarily and secondarily. Revisions and secondary operations were done in 48% of the patients. Initial healing of the flaps was favourable in 76% of the patients. Postoperative discharge from the suture sites was seen in 24% of the patients, but this usually resolved within several weeks using daily irrigation, and these cases underwent scar revision subsequently. None of the soft-tissue flaps sloughed or developed necrosis. Form and function of the soft-tissue reconstructed regions usually recovered within one year postoperatively. The aesthetic results obtained were favourable. None required facial nerve grafting as only the terminal branches were injured in our cases and functional recovery was acceptable. Application of local tissue transfer procedures in our series of facial warfare injuries yielded acceptable tissue form, texture, and colour match, especially when these procedures were used in combination, and tailored to surgically fit the individual case. Moreover, application of these procedures is relatively easy and postoperative morbidity is limited, provided the general condition of the patient is stable, and the surgical techniques used have good indications and flap principles.
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6/89. eye injuries in a terrorist bombing: Dhahran, saudi arabia, June 25, 1996.

    OBJECTIVE: We report the experience of our institution in the evaluation and care of multiple simultaneous ocular trauma patients after a terrorist bomb attack on a united states military base in saudi arabia. DESIGN: Retrospective, noncomparative small case series. PARTICIPANTS: Three patients who received severe ocular injuries after a terrorist bombing. INTERVENTION: All patients underwent surgical repair of the injuries that were inflicted as a result of the terrorist bombing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline ocular characteristics, intraoperative findings, surgical procedures, and final (3 years after injury) anatomic and visual outcomes were noted. RESULTS: glass fragments caused by the blast were the mechanism of all the ocular injuries in these patients. All patients had primary repair of the injuries done in saudi arabia and were sent to our institution for tertiary care. Three of the four eyes injured had stable or improved visual acuity and one eye was enucleated. Two patients had no serious injury other than the globe trauma. One patient had extensive eyelid trauma and required serial procedures to allow fitting of a prosthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Blast-injury patients are at risk for open globe injury as a result of glass fragments. The types of injury that can occur from terrorist blasts can be extensive and involve all the tissues of the eye, the ocular adnexa, and the orbit.
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7/89. death caused by a letter bomb.

    A 48-year-old man was killed by the explosion of a letter bomb after receiving severe injuries to his face and left hand. The autopsy ascertained that the right eye and orbit had been completely destroyed by a large piece of metal from a tin can that had entered the cranial cavity through the right eye and caused fatal brain damage. The victim had also sustained a severe injury to his left hand. Reconstruction of the metal and plastic fragments showed that the victim had received a padded envelope with a video cassette in which a simple explosive device was hidden in a flat tin. The explosive charge consisted of a mixture (ca. 60 g) of sodium chlorate, sodium chloride and sucrose. The charge was detonated by a nylon cord attached to the inside of the envelope which was stretched when the video cassette was pulled out of the envelope. This removed a piece of plastic from between two contacts, and the explosion was set off immediately by a battery which activated two flash bulbs placed within the charge.
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8/89. Amelanotic corneal melanoma after a blast injury.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of a corneal melanoma after trauma. methods: Case report. RESULTS: A 68-year-old man sustained an ocular injury from a blast furnace explosion in 1958. In 1998, he underwent a penetrating keratoplasty for a corneal scar. Histologic examination and cell markers of the host button revealed intrastromal and subepithelial melanoma. No clinical or microscopic evidence of adjacent conjunctival or uveal melanoma was found. CONCLUSION: melanoma of the cornea can present as a stromal opacity after trauma.
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9/89. Firecracker injuries to the hand.

    Between September 1999 and April 2000, the hand Unit at St George Hospital, Sydney, treated three young men with severe injuries caused by holding a lighted firecracker. These cases illustrate the typical injuries seen with this mechanism of injury. They highlight the dangers of these explosive devices and the potential to improve the laws relating to fireworks.
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10/89. Fireworks injury: temporal bone penetration and a wooden intra-cranial foreign body.

    We describe a case of a teenager sitting in a car, who was struck by a fireworks missile. The unusual presentation of a large wooden foreign body penetrating through the temporal bone and lodging in the brain is detailed. The management is discussed.
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