Cases reported "Blast Injuries"

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1/13. Penetrating head injuries caused by a new weapon, the side dome.

    The "side dome" is a mix of high and low explosives with a multitude of small metal balls molded within a specially designed half-sphere that directs the explosion wave and the projectiles in one direction to augment the harm. This weapon, originally designed by guerrilla and terrorist groups, is now used by regular armies. This report presents one craniocervical and eight cranial injuries caused by this new weapon and discusses the cases' various clinical features, the paucity of intracerebral cavitation damage along the missile track, the need for only minimally aggressive surgery, and the relatively favorable outcome. In all cases, the helmet offered good protection and the entry of the projectiles was just below its rim in an upward direction.
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2/13. Injuries from hand grenades in civilian settings.

    Four cases of hand grenade detonations in civilian life with homicidal intent are reported. The detonations always occurred in close proximity to the victims but there were only two fatalities out of seven victims directly attributable to the hand grenades. The relatively low mortality rate results from the ballistic characteristics of hand grenade missiles such as low mass and sectional density. This leads to rapid deceleration and thus to a poor penetration capacity of intermediate targets and tissue. Window glass at a distance of 2 m was not perforated in one case and the vast majority of fragment wounds showed a short wound tract of small diameter. The potential for physical activity can be unaffected even after a detonation inside a car. However, body parts almost in contact with the hand grenade, such as in a struggle, suffer large lacerations and comminuted fractures. At a distance, the chance of striking a vulnerable body region is increased by the multiple missiles but the wounding potential clearly decreases with increasing distance due to rapid deceleration and decreasing fragment cloud density. The effective range of detonation shock waves from hand grenades is very short and can only contribute to wounding in close-to-contact detonations. The forensic reconstruction is based on the directed radial character of the forces generated and on the sharply decreasing intensity of these forces with increasing distance from the detonation.
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3/13. Low frequency jet ventilation for stent insertion in a patient with tracheal stenosis.

    PURPOSE: Evaluate oxygen jet ventilation in a patient with tracheal stenosis undergoing stent insertion. CLINICAL FEATURES: Manual intermittent low frequency oxygen jet ventilation was used during general anesthesia for fibreoptic bronchoscopy and stent insertion in a patient with tracheal stenosis. oxygen jets were delivered via a Sander's injector adapted to the proximal end of the endotracheal tube on one side, and open to room air on the other side. Adequate oxygenation and carbon dioxide removal were ensured throughout the procedure. CONCLUSION: Low frequency jet ventilation in a patient with tracheal stenosis provided adequate ventilation as well as a non- obstructed field during fibreoptic bronchoscopy and stent insertion.
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keywords = frequency
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4/13. homicide by improvised explosive device made out of firecrackers.

    Explosion is a phenomenon resulting from a sudden release of energy dissipated by: (1) blast wave; (2) translocation of objects; and (3) generation of heat. There are different types of explosive devices varying from sophisticated military bombs to simple firecrackers. These are made from various kinds of explosive materials. Sophisticated bombs are used in war and military operations to kill one's enemies, while simple firecrackers are meant for expressing joy and celebration. Here, the author reports an unusual case of homicide by the manufacture of an improvised explosive device from simple firecrackers. In india, these firecrackers are widely and freely available all over the country. The case highlights the fatal hazard resulting from easy access to these potentially dangerous devices, apart from the environmental pollution produced by their large scale use at the time of festivals in this country.
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5/13. Microwave-superheated Vics Vapo Rub: an ocular public health danger.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of a microwave-oven superheated petroleum-based liquid causing severe chemical and thermal ocular burns treated successfully with amniotic membrane transplantation. DESIGN: Observational case report. methods: Retrospective review of clinical case. RESULTS: A 77-year-old woman sustained a severe combined chemical and thermal burn from microwave-heated Vicks Vapo-Rub requiring amniotic membrane transplant, with subsequent development of phacomorphic glaucoma, requiring cataract extraction, and bullous keratopathy, requiring penetrating keratoplasty. CONCLUSIONS: As microwave oven use becomes more commonplace, the risk of superheating liquids becomes an increasingly significant ocular danger. Continued efforts to educate the public about safe microwave use is necessary. Additionally, amniotic membrane transplantation was found to be effective in managing a combined chemical and thermal ocular burn.
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ranking = 549.91729810869
keywords = microwave, wave
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6/13. Ocular surface injury from a microwave superheated liquid.

    PURPOSE: To describe the ocular surface injury resulting from a microwave superheated liquid. methods: Case report. RESULTS: A 40-year-old man sustained an ocular surface injury from a microwave superheated liquid. The injury resulted in limbal stem cell damage requiring an autograft limbal stem cell transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: We are unaware of previous reports of microwave superheated liquids resulting in ocular injury. Microwave superheating of liquids is a potential ocular danger that should be brought to the attention of both ophthalmologists and their patients.
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ranking = 956.35527169021
keywords = microwave, wave
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7/13. Renal autotransplantation in management of bilateral ureteral mortar shell injuries: a case report.

    We present a 36-year-old female patient who was injured in the pelvic region by a mortar shell fragment. The trauma comprised a complex lesion to both ureters, to the urinary bladder, and to the pelvic brim. The ruptured urinary bladder was sutured and a bilateral ureterocutaneostomy was performed in a hospital near the front line. Because of a large scar and the right ureter necrosis, a kidney autotransplant was performed 3 months later. A left ureterocystoneostomy was done. Five years later, because of urosepsis and hydronephrosis caused by a ureteral calculus, a nephrostomy was placed in the proximal right ureter, antibiotic treatment was prescribed, and the calculus was managed by crushing the stones using extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Ten years after the initial trauma, the patient is well, has normal micturition, and both of her kidneys are functioning normally.
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8/13. Ocular injury in children from exploding microwaved eggs.

    PURPOSE: To report an ocular injury caused by exploding microwave-cooked eggs. DESIGN: case reports. methods: Two children exposed to exploding microwaved eggs were examined for facial burns and ocular trauma. RESULTS: One patient sustained mild corneal epithelial damage in both eyes and eyelid burn, which were treated conservatively. The other, injured in the same event, had symblepharon and moderate keratopathy requiring intensive lysis. CONCLUSIONS: physicians should be alerted to the potential risk of vision-threatening ocular injury from exploding microwaved foods, and the public should be educated not to cook eggs in microwave ovens.
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ranking = 1091.8345962174
keywords = microwave, wave
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9/13. Ocular surface injury from a microwave superheated egg resulting in a pseudopterygium.

    PURPOSE: To describe the first case of ocular surface injury resulting in a pseudopterygium from a microwave superheated egg. methods: Case report. RESULTS: A 12-year-old girl sustained an ocular surface injury resulting in a pseudopterygium from a microwave superheated egg. CONCLUSION: Microwave superheated eggs can result in ocular injury. This case illustrates the potential ocular danger involved with microwave ovens.
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ranking = 956.35527169021
keywords = microwave, wave
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10/13. 'Special effects' burn injuries.

    Three patients are presented with significant flame burns, resulting from accidents occurring during 'special effects' situations in the entertainment industry. These occurred as a result of the spontaneous combustion of various materials, during events in live theatre (gun powder), a television commercial (artificial 'rocket fuel'), and a video presentation (magnesium oxide). All three patients sustained flash burns to the face and hands. One patient sustained a significant bilateral corneal injury, a gamekeeper's thumb, and a permanent continuous right-sided high frequency tinnitus, in addition to his burn injury. Photographic documentation of all three patients is presented. The total loss of time from work for all patients was 6 months. All these injuries were potentially preventable.
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