Cases reported "Blepharospasm"

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1/38. clozapine in the treatment of neuroleptic-induced blepharospasm: a report of 4 cases.

    BACKGROUND: blepharospasm, the forcible closure of eyelids, is an infrequent consequence of neuroleptic treatment that, when severe, can interfere with the ability to walk, drive, or work. Like tardive dyskinesia, blepharospasm can be disfiguring and aesthetically distressing, contributing to the increased stigmatization of patients. case reports: We report 4 patients with DSM-IV schizoaffective disorder, paranoid schizophrenia, or chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia who developed neuroleptic-induced blepharospasm. In all patients, blepharospasm remitted without the reemergence of psychosis within 3 to 5 months of treatment with clozapine, 100-200 mg/day. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that clozapine may successfully treat neuroleptic-induced blepharospasm without the reemergence of psychosis in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophreniform disorder.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dyskinesia
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2/38. A Yorkshire family with adult-onset cranio-cervical primary torsion dystonia.

    Although a family history is described in approximately 20% of patients, large families with adult-onset craniocervical primary (idiopathic) torsion dystonia (PTD) are rare. We report a new British family with cranio-cervical dystonia. Seventeen members of the family were examined. Five cases were diagnosed as definite PTD and one as probable PTD. Mean age at onset was 29 years (range, 19-40 yrs). The phenotype was characterized by adult-onset cranio-cervical dystonia in all affected cases. A few cases had additional voice tremor and/or postural arm tremor. The GAG deletion in the DYT1 gene was excluded in the index case. Linkage analysis was performed between the disease and several marker loci spanning DYT6 and DYT7 regions, and haplotypes were reconstructed in all subjects. Although linkage analysis was not completely informative, reconstructed haplotypes excluded linkage between the disease and either DYT6 or DYT7. This report confirms that familial cranio-cervical dystonia is genetically heterogeneous, and further studies of other PTD families with similar clinical features are needed to identify other new genes.
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ranking = 74.440826445331
keywords = dystonia, idiopathic
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3/38. Botulinum toxin treatment in atypical parkinsonian disorders associated with disabling focal dystonia.

    We investigated the efficacy of botulinum toxin A (BtxA) therapy in patients with atypical parkinsonian disorders (APD) exhibiting different types of disabling focal dystonia unresponsive to oral drug therapy. Eight patients with functionally disabling focal dystonia out of a series of 60 consecutive patients with APDs regularly treated at our outpatient movement disorders clinic were included. patients were diagnosed according to established criteria and had disabling limb dystonia (n=4) or craniocervical dystonia (n=4) unresponsive to oral pharmacological treatment. Localization and dose of BtxA injections was determined individually based on clinical examination as well as EMG in patients with limb dystonia. BtxA reduced dystonic symptoms in all patients; only one developed a transient local side-effect. BtxA was particularly effective in the long-term treatment (up to 50 months) of blepharospasm associated with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). BtxA also alleviated PSP-associated retrocollis and orofacial dystonia with lower lip retraction associated with PSP and multiple system atrophy. BtxA treatment of limb dystonia in corticobasal degeneration (CBD) temporarily improved hand and arm function in early-disease stages while treatment in advanced stages reduced pain, facilitated hygiene and prevented secondary contractures. Limb dystonia was also alleviated by BtxA therapy in one patient with neuronal multisystem degeneration of undetermined cause. The results suggest that BtxA therapy may represent an effective means of alleviating disabling focal dystonia in different APDs. Particularly in early stage APD with disabling limb dystonia local BtxA injections may result in functional improvement.
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ranking = 130.26379191371
keywords = dystonia
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4/38. dystonia as a presenting sign of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1.

    We report on a 39-year-old man who presented initially with marked blepharospasm, oromandibular dystonia and retrocollis and one year later developed mild ataxia. Our findings suggest that dystonia can be a disabling presenting sign of SCA1 and support the clinical heterogeneity of SCA1, highlighting the importance of considering this entity in patients combining dystonia and cerebellar ataxia.
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ranking = 27.913669695795
keywords = dystonia
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5/38. Cannabinoid agonists in the treatment of blepharospasm--a case report study.

    The benign essential blepharospasm is a subliminal form of primary torsion dystonia with still uncertain aetiology. It is characterized by involuntary convulsive muscle contractions of the M. orbicularis occuli, accompanied by unbearable pain of the cornea, eye bulb and the muscle itself. It has been suggested that blepharospasm is neurobiologically based on a dysfunction of the basal ganglia and an impairment of the dopamine neurotransmitter system. Therefore, therapy of blepharospasm contains administration of anticholinergic- and tranquillizing drugs as well as botulinum toxin as neuromuscular blocking agent. However serious side effects can be observed as well as failure of therapy. In the brain a dense co-localisation of cannabinoid (CB1) and dopamine (D2)-receptor was identified which had been associated with the influence of cannabinoids on the dopaminergic reward system. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that cannabinoids may have an impact on the central GABAergic and glutaminergic transmitter system and thus might be involved in the influence of movement control. In the present case we administered the cannabinoid receptor agonist dronabinol (Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol) to a woman suffering from severe blepharospasm. Multiple treatments with botulinum toxin did not reveal a long-lasting beneficial effect. By contrast, treatment with 25 mg dronabinol for several weeks improved the patients' social life and attenuated pain perception remarkably. This case study demonstrates that the therapy with a cannabinoid agonist may provide a novel tool in the treatment of blepharospasm and maybe of other multifactorial related movement disorders.
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ranking = 9.304556565265
keywords = dystonia
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6/38. Dysphagia as a side effect of botulinum toxin injection.

    Dysphagia is a known adverse effect of botulinum toxin injection into the cervical region for dystonia. We present an unusual case of dysphagia arising from injection into the orbicularis oculi muscle, which has hitherto not been described. We postulate that her dysphagia was caused by distant side effects of botulinum toxin due to repeated injections. We recommend that clinicians should restrict the frequency of injections to as few life-time doses of the toxin as possible for adequate management of spasm. The practice of re-injecting patients routinely every three months, or at the first return of mild spasms should be discouraged.
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ranking = 9.304556565265
keywords = dystonia
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7/38. Remission of tardive dystonia (blepharospasm) after electroconvulsive therapy in a patient with treatment-refractory schizophrenia.

    Tardive dystonia is a movement disorder dominated by involuntary muscle contractions that may be tonic, spasmodic, patterned or repetitive, associated with the use of dopamine-receptor blocking agents. Most of the patients with tardive dystonia present initially with blepharospasm. Treatment of dystonia is generally disappointing. A patient with chronic paranoid schizophrenia who developed blepharospasm is described here. blepharospasm remitted after a course of electroconvulsive therapy. Remission was sustained until 3 months after stopping maintenance electroconvulsive therapy.
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ranking = 65.131895956855
keywords = dystonia
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8/38. meige syndrome and pallidal deep brain stimulation.

    The cause of primary meige syndrome is unknown, and although gender and age predilections are different from idiopathic torsion dystonia, most investigators consider meige syndrome a variant of that disorder. Interest in the use of stereotactic brain surgery for refractory forms of dystonia is thus increasing. There is little experience with the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in focal dystonias, and reports of its use in meige syndrome are very rare. We report on a case of meige syndrome successfully treated with bilateral pallidal DBS.
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ranking = 27.918043619006
keywords = dystonia, idiopathic
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9/38. Levetiracetam for the treatment of generalized dystonia.

    We report the case of a woman with generalized dystonia whose symptoms improved with the use of levetiracetam. Improvements were noted in blepharospasm, cervical, and truncal dystonia. The patient has been on LEV for a total of 20 weeks, and has experienced sustained improvement of symptoms.
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ranking = 55.82733939159
keywords = dystonia
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10/38. Essential blepharospasm: nursing update.

    Essential blepharospasm is a chronic, potentially disabling disorder for which there is no known cause or cure. The term blepharospasm derives from the Greek word 'blepharon' meaning eyelid and the word 'essential' implies unknown cause. In neurological literature blepharospasm is classed as a focal dystonia. Lack of recognition of the disease may cause patients to consult numerous physicians as well as acupuncturists, chiropractors, faith healers and others in an effort to find a cure to what they are sure is not just a psychological problem. nurses who are knowledgeable about the disease entity can easily recognize the symptoms. They can also prevent disability by recommending appropriate professional help. Treatment for the control of symptoms has only recently become available. It is the purpose of this discussion to review current information about blepharospasm that has particular relevance for neuroscience nurses in their personal as well as professional lives.
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ranking = 9.304556565265
keywords = dystonia
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