Cases reported "Blindness"

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1/114. arachnoiditis and VECP change.

    A five-year-old boy presented with tuberculous meningitis and subsequently developed amaurosis with optochiasmatic arachnoiditis (OCA) late in the convalescent stage of the illness. The visual evoked cortical potentials were correlated with the decreased and improved postoperative acuity. The diagnosis and classification of OCA have been discussed with emphasis given to prompt neurosurgical treatment.
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2/114. Numerous transorbital wooden foreign bodies in the sphenoid sinus.

    A very rare case of numerous transorbital wooden foreign bodies penetrating into the sphenoid sinus in a 47-year-old male is reported. His right eye was nonreactive to light, and the oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nerves were completely disturbed. Although a minor injury was observed on the inner side of the right eyebrow, the wound was not serious or infectious. Computed tomographic scanning of the orbit and parasinus revealed an isodense linear shadow to muscle and an irregular shadow of the lamina papyracea. However, the findings were difficult to discriminate from an optic canal fracture preoperatively. We detected foreign bodies penetrating the optic nerve rise, which were successfully removed in combination with an endoscopic transethmoidal and transorbital approach. Various and careful imaging examinations are recommended to diagnose and manage paraorbital trauma, when a penetrating wound of the face is observed.
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keywords = operative
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3/114. hyperthyroidism due to papillary carcinoma of the thyroid--a case report.

    A rare case of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid producing hyperthyroidism is presented. A young patients presented seven years after a thyroid operation with metastatic disease in the cervical lymph nodes and a history of deteriorating vision in the left eye. He also had a lesion in the base of the skull which could not be established to be metastasis from the thyroid cancer. There was clinical and biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism. Radionuclide scan revealed uptake in the residual thyroid tissue and patchy uptake by the cervical lymph nodes. The patient underwent a complete thyroidectomy and radical neck dissection of the left side and 'berry-picking' of the lymph nodes on the right side. Although the patient became euthyroid post-operatively, his general condition deteriorated and he rapidly lost vision in both eyes before any ablative therapy could be instituted for the tumour in the base of the skull. The patient was lost to follow-up.
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keywords = operative
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4/114. Preliminary report: indications of improved visual function after retinal sheet transplantation in retinitis pigmentosa patients.

    PURPOSE: To report indications of new visual function after retinal transplantation in two blind patients with retinitis pigmentosa. methods: Intact sheets of fetal retina (15 and 17 weeks gestational age) were transplanted subretinally (between the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium) near the fovea in the left eye of a 23-year-old white man (Patient A) and in the left eye of a 72-year-old white woman (Patient B), both with autosomal-recessive retinitis pigmentosa. RESULTS: Postoperatively, at 6 and 5 months, respectively, both patients reported new visual sensation in the visual field corresponding to the transplant. In both patients, the visual sensation continued to be present after transplantation, at 12 and 8 months, respectively. In Patient A, a transient multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) response was observed in the transplant area 4 months postoperatively but was not detectable in Patient A at 6.0 and 9.5 months post-retinal transplantation. In Patient B, no positive mfERG responses were seen up to 5 months postoperatively. No rejection (presenting as cystoid macular edema, macular pucker, and extensive intraretinal edema with disrupted retinal pigment epithelium) to the transplanted tissue was seen up to 13 months in Patient A and 9 months in Patient B by fluorescein angiography. CONCLUSION: Transplantation of intact sheets of fetal human retina in two patients with retinitis pigmentosa was not associated with evidence of transplant rejection. Subjective improvement and an indication of objective improvement 4 months postoperatively were seen in Patient A, and subjective improvement only was seen in Patient B.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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5/114. Visual loss associated with fibrous dysplasia of the anterior skull base. Case report and review of the literature.

    The authors present a case of visual loss associated with fibrous dysplasia of the anterior skull base and the surgical management of this case. Preoperative computerized tomography scanning in this patient demonstrated a patent optic foramen and a rapidly growing cystic mass within the orbit, which was responsible for the patient's visual loss. A literature review revealed that this case is typical, in that cystic mass lesions of various types are frequently responsible for visual loss associated with fibrous dysplasia. The authors did not find significant evidence in the literature to support the notion that visual loss associated with fibrous dysplasia is the result of progressive optic canal stenosis, thus raising questions about the value of prophylactic optic canal decompression. Instead, as demonstrated by this case and those uncovered in the literature review, most instances of visual loss result from the rapid growth of mass lesions of cystic fibrous dysplasia, mucoceles, or hemorrhage. Findings of the literature review and the present case of fibrous dysplasia of the anterior skull base support a role for extensive surgical resection in these cases and indicate a need for additional prospective analysis of a larger number of patients with this disease.
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keywords = operative
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6/114. Traumatic carotid artery dissection causing blindness.

    A case of delayed postoperative visual loss due to bilateral traumatic carotid artery dissection is presented. In patients with a major craniofacial injury due to a high-speed motor vehicle accident, we suggest that carotid artery duplex ultrasonography be used in the initial evaluation for possible carotid artery dissection. magnetic resonance imaging of the head and neck with magnetic resonance angiography should be performed subsequently if indicated. early diagnosis and initiation of therapy can minimize complications.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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7/114. Post-operative bilateral vision loss.

    A 41-year-old man presented with acute bilateral loss of vision upon awakening after elective surgery. After thorough evaluation it was determined that he had suffered bilateral posterior ischemic optic neuropathies secondary to hypotension while under general anesthesia. One eye showed significant improvement over the next 4 weeks, whereas the other remained unchanged.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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8/114. A case of transient blindness in a postoperative hyponatremic child.

    hyponatremia represents a common electrolyte disorder in postoperative patients. headache, nausea, emesis, weakness and lethargy are all consistent symptoms of hyponatremia in children. Among the neurologic symptoms that are infrequently seen in severe hyponatremic pediatric patients seizure is included while visual disorders are not. We report a case of an 8-year-old boy who underwent abdominal surgery and developed severe hyponatremia. Five days after surgery the child suffered a seizure and successively experienced bilateral visual loss. However, after prompt correction of serum sodium concentration, a complete resolution of the blindness was obtained. Thus, we discuss the present case speculating on the pathogenesis of hyponatremic blindness and on its possible therapeutic approach. In conclusion, we suggest that blindness is to be considered a rare symptom that can occur in the clinical scenario of hyponatremia and we report its complete reversibility after timely treatment of hyponatremia.
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ranking = 5
keywords = operative
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9/114. Recurrent keratoconus in a patient with leber congenital amaurosis.

    PURPOSE: Clinical history of a 17-year-old patient with leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) with histologically proven recurrent keratoconus (KC) two years after corneal transplantation in one eye and a recurrence-like appearance with a more global contour on the other eye four years after corneal grafting is reported. The possible mechanisms for this recurrence are discussed in light of the fact that this is, to the best of our knowledge, the first penetrating keratoplasty reported in LCA. methods: Computerized videokeratography (CVKG) and specular microscopy were performed preoperatively. The patient underwent regrafting, and the excised corneal button was examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Analysis of CVKG showed a keratoconus-like pattern on the right eye, with the left eye demonstrating the aspects usually seen in keratoglobus. Histologic examination revealed the features usually observed in progressed keratoconus. CONCLUSION: recurrence of keratoconus in a graft has not yet been described after such a short time until now. A "true" recurrence of the disease is postulated; it could be caused by an "aggressive" genetic factor that also leads to the frequent KC in patients with LCA. This mechanism also could explain the high incidence and rapid progress of KC in this disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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10/114. Unilateral blindness as a complication of intraoperative positioning for cervical spinal surgery.

    The authors report a case of unilateral blindness after surgical vertebral stabilization for C5-C6 subluxation. The blindness resulted from ischemia of the retina caused by prolonged compression of the eyeball on the surgical bed. This injury can be serious and irreversible, so it must be prevented by placing the patient in the proper position. The anesthetist must pay particular attention to avoid the consequences of possible intraoperative movement.
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ranking = 5
keywords = operative
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