Cases reported "Blindness"

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21/27. blindness secondary to prostate cancer.

    We report a case of blindness, secondary to hormone-refractory prostate cancer, occurring 7 years after the diagnosis of metastatic prostate cancer and 3.5 years after the clinical onset of the hormone-refractory state. Prolonged suppression of the disease with chemotherapy may have contributed to the unusual clinical findings. We discuss the role of supportive care in the management of prostate cancer.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cancer
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22/27. Visual loss following treatment of sphenoid sinus carcinoma.

    A 71-year-old woman developed complete third nerve palsy and total blindness of the right eye one month after completing a course of radiotherapy for sphenoid sinus carcinoma over a 13-month period. Differential diagnosis included recurrence of the tumor, radiation-induced second neoplasm, empty sella with chiasmal prolapse and secondary chiasmal arachnoid adhesions, and radionecrosis. magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated gadolinium contrast enhancement of the right intracranial optic nerve and chiasm, suggesting a radionecrosis process.
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ranking = 133.80326629503
keywords = radiation-induced, neoplasm
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23/27. Malignant tumor of the retinal pigment epithelium with extraocular extension in a phthisical eye.

    BACKGROUND: Malignant tumors of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are exceedingly rare. We describe the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of a RPE neoplasm that was found accidentally in a blind and painful phthisical eye. methods: The enucleated eye was investigated by light microscopy, and tumor tissue was also studied by electron microscopy. immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against HMB-45, S-100 protein, NSE, cytokeratins, vimentin, desmin, GFAP, the HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope and alpha-smooth muscle actin. RESULTS: The tumor was located mainly in the vitreous cavity with practically complete destruction of the retina, but foci of choroidal infiltration and extraocular extension along vascular channels were identified. The mitotic rate was high, and large areas of necrosis were present. No features of differentiation were seen, apart from occasional desmosome-like junctions and deposition of basal lamina at the ultrastructural level. Adjacent to the tumor, reactive hyperplasia and metaplasia of RPE cells was prominent. By immunohistochemistry, tumor cells revealed intense immunoreactivity with anti-vimentin and weak staining with anti-S-100 protein. The hyperplastic RPE cells also reacted for cytokeratins 8, 18 and 19 and for alpha-smooth muscle actin. At more than 1 year post enucleation the patient is well and shows no signs of recurrence or metastatic disease. CONCLUSION: We present the features of a malignant tumor of the RPE with unequivocal extraocular extension. These findings raise the possibility that RPE hyperplasia may transform into a malignant tumor.
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ranking = 0.14255623268716
keywords = neoplasm
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24/27. Developmental tumour of the visual pathways. Report of an unusual case.

    An unusual case of congenital hydrocephalus and visual loss due to developmental tumour of optic pathways is described. Diffuse, uniform and symmetrical replacement and enlargement of optic nerves, chiasma and optic tracts resulted in remarkable computerized tomographic (CT) scan images not yet described in the literature. Embryo-pathogenesis of this anatomical configuration of the neoplasm outlining the enlarged visual pathways in their entirety is discussed. The relevant literature is reviewed.
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ranking = 0.14255623268716
keywords = neoplasm
(Clic here for more details about this article)

25/27. Presumed adenocarcinoma of the retinal pigment epithelium in a blind eye with a staphyloma.

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) can undergo reactive hyperplasia and metaplasia following a variety of ocular insults. However, true neoplasms of the RPE are rare. We report a case of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the RPE arising in the blind staphylomatous right eye of a 79-year-old woman with a long history of bilateral posterior staphylomas who was seen with increasing pain and exophthalmos of the right eye. Findings from ultrasonography and computed tomography demonstrated linear calcification consistent with osseous metaplasia of the RPE. Progression of the exophthalmos and worsening exposure keratitis led to enucleation of the eye. Gross pathology showed a 79-mm-long globe. Histopathologic findings revealed a largely amelanotic papillary adenocarcinoma arising from the RPE. Positive immunoreactivity for cytokeratin supported the epithelial origin of the tumor. adenocarcinoma of the RPE is rare but may develop in a blind eye.
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ranking = 0.14255623268716
keywords = neoplasm
(Clic here for more details about this article)

26/27. radiation-induced optic neuropathy 4 years after radiation: report of a case followed up with MRI.

    We report a case of radiation-induced optic neuropathy in a 32-year-old man with Cushing's disease and a recurrent tumour of the left cavernous sinus. The patient experienced rapid, painless loss of vision 4 years after treatment without recurrence of tumour or other visual disorder. MRI showed enlargement and contrast enhancement of the optic chiasm. A year later the patient was almost blind and MRI showed atrophy and persistent contrast enhancement of the chiasm.
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ranking = 133.66071006234
keywords = radiation-induced
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27/27. radiation-induced bilateral optic neuropathy in cancer of the nasopharynx. Case failure analysis and a review of the literature.

    CASE REPORT: A case history of unanticipated radiation-induced bilateral optic neuropathy, 18 months after induction chemotherapy and radiation therapy for a locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma, is presented. Retrospective reanalysis of the radiation therapy technique, with emphasis on the doses received by the optic pathway structures, was performed. These re-calculations revealed unexpectedly high doses in the range 79 to 82 Gy (cumulative external and brachytherapy dose) at the level of the optic nerves, which explained the observed radiation injury. CONCLUSION: Routine implementation of computed tomography for 3D dose planning purposes is therefore advocated. review of the current literature confirms the importance of 3D dose planning in avoiding this complication and high-lights the role of MRI in establishing the diagnosis of radiation-induced optic neuropathy.
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ranking = 267.89284869612
keywords = radiation-induced, cancer
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