Cases reported "Blister"

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1/7. Hypergammaglobulinaemic purpura presenting as reticulate purpura.

    Hypergammaglobulinaemic purpura, first described by Waldenstrom, is a rare skin disease. The essential features are the presence of purpura with polyclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia. We describe a case of hypergammaglobulinaemic purpura occurring in a Chinese man with reticulate purpura and haemorrhagic blisters.
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2/7. Bullous lesions in scleroderma.

    BACKGROUND: The occurrence of bullous lesions in localized or systemic scleroderma is rare. Three histologic patterns have been reported: lichen sclerosus et atrophicus-like, lymphangiectatic blisters and autoimmune blistering diseases. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency, clinical, and immunopathologic features of patients with scleroderma and bullous eruptions and to review the literature regarding this rare condition. methods: A retrospective study of 53 cases of scleroderma (localized, generalized, and systemic) in the dermatology and rheumatology clinics at one institution over an 8-year span. Clinical, serologic, and immunopathologic findings were analyzed in four cases. RESULTS: Four of 53 patients exhibited bullous lesions in association with scleroderma. The first case illustrates lymphangioma-like clinical and pathologic presentation. The second case demonstrates bullous lichen sclerosus et atrophicus-like pattern. The other two cases exemplify a superimposed autoimmune skin disease, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and penicillamine induced pemphigus foliaceus after treatment for systemic scleroderma. CONCLUSIONS: Of the 53 original patients, we have described four cases of bullous scleroderma (7.5%) Illustrating several pathogenetic mechanisms of bulla formation. inflammatory (lichen sclerosus et atrophicus), fibrotic/obstructive (lymphangiomatous), autoimmune (epidermolysis bullosa acquisita), and pemphigus foliaceus. The final case illustrates bullae as a complication of therapy for the underlying scleroderma.
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3/7. Improvement of toxic epidermal necrolysis after the early administration of a single high dose of intravenous immunoglobulin.

    BACKGROUND: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a severe disease often induced by drugs. Treatment is controversial, although intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) have been effective. OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a child with TEN after lamotrigine treatment, who improved 24 hours after IVIG administration. methods: Sequential blood and blister fluid samples were obtained for flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses. RESULTS: The first blood sample, taken before IVIG administration, showed normal levels of lymphocyte subsets and CLA (4.0%) but high levels of activated lymphocytes (CD69) (18.0%). After treatment, the CLA , CD69 , and memory cells increased until day 7, decreasing to normal values at days 15 and 30. In the blister fluid samples, taken on day 1, there were high levels of CD8 (70.2%; CD4/CD8 ratio, 1:5), CLA (18.8%), and CD69 (70%) cells, decreasing 24 hours after IVIG administration. In the blood samples, there was a Th1 cytokine pattern initially, tending to Th0 with time. perforin, granzyme B, and Fas ligand were only observed before IVIG administration. CONCLUSIONS: A single high dose of IVIG interrupted the progression of skin disease and reduced the expression of the apoptotic markers. The immunologic changes, first seen in blister fluid and remaining several days in peripheral blood, indicate that T cells were first recruited to the skin and then recirculated to blood.
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4/7. Subepidermal blistering disease with autoantibodies to both the p200 autoantigen and the alpha3 chain of laminin 5.

    Anti-p200 pemphigoid and anti-laminin 5 mucous membrane pemphigoid are two distinct autoimmune blistering skin diseases. patients with anti-p200 pemphigoid demonstrate circulating autoantibodies to an unknown 200-kd acidic noncollagenous glycoprotein of the lower lamina lucida, whereas anti-laminin 5 mucous membrane pemphigoid is characterized by an autoimmune response against the major basement membrane adhesion molecule laminin 5. In this report, we describe a patient who developed a recurrent nonscarring blistering eruption, affecting both skin and mucous membranes. immunoblotting of dermal extracts and extracellular matrix of cultured keratinocytes revealed circulating autoantibodies directed to the p200 antigen and the alpha3 chain of laminin 5, respectively. The unusual clinical and immunologic profile of this case suggests that molecular specificity of circulating autoantibodies affects the clinical presentation of autoimmune subepidermal blistering skin diseases.
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5/7. Kindler syndrome. Clinical and ultrastructural findings.

    BACKGROUND: Kindler syndrome is a genodermatosis that combines clinical features of hereditary epidermolysis bullosa and poikiloderma congenitale. The ultrastructural level of blister formation has not been well characterized. OBSERVATIONS: Two brothers with Kindler syndrome had a history of primarily acral blistering since infancy as well as photosensitivity. blister formation was found through the basal layer. Marked tonofilament clumping was found in intact keratinocytes adjacent to the blisters. The younger brother (aged 21 years) had actinic keratoses, which have not been previously described in Kindler syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of basal layer separation in both spontaneous and induced blisters in Kindler syndrome suggest this is the true level of blister formation. The finding of actinic keratoses in a young patient with Kindler syndrome suggests that some patients may be at increased risk for early solar-induced skin disease. The presence of clumped tonofilaments in keratinocytes adjacent to blistered areas suggests an abnormality of keratin 5 or 14 could be present and may play a role in blister formation in patients with Kindler syndrome.
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6/7. Homozygous alpha6 integrin mutation in junctional epidermolysis bullosa with congenital duodenal atresia.

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa with congenital pyloric or duodenal atresia is a distinct variant within this group of autosomal recessive blistering skin diseases. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, a homozygous mutation in the alpha6 integrin gene (ITGA6) in a family with three affected individuals. For this purpose, we first determined the genomic organization of ITGA6, and placed the gene on chromosome 2q by high resolution radiation hybrid mapping. heteroduplex analysis of PCR products containing the individual exons of ITGA6, followed by direct nucleotide sequencing, revealed that the proband was homozygous for a G-to-T transversion in the 1 position of intron 12. This mutation, 1856 1G-->T, affects an invariant base of the 5' donor splice site predicting aberrant splicing involving exon 12. The mutation was verified in the proband's dna by restriction enzyme digestion which also confirmed that the parents were heterozygous carriers of this mutation. Altered expression of alpha6 integrin, which forms a heterodimer with the beta4 subunit at the dermal-epidermal junction, would explain fragility and blistering as a result of minor trauma to the skin.
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7/7. Immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular features of Kindler syndrome distinguish it from dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

    BACKGROUND: Kindler syndrome is a rare, inherited skin disease characterized by acral bullae formation, fusion of fingers and toes, and generalized progressive poikiloderma. The purpose of this study was to clarify the nature of the bullous component of Kindler syndrome and to determine whether this inherited skin disorder represents a variant of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa or a unique independent clinical entity. OBSERVATIONS: Two unrelated patients with Kindler syndrome were studied. Electron microscopy demonstrated marked duplication of the lamina densa, and clefts were observed in areas where the lamina densa was destroyed or obscured. hemidesmosomes and anchoring fibrils showed normal features. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed normal linear labeling with antibodies against hemidesmosomal components (alpha 6 and beta 4 integrins, BPAG1, and BPAG2) and against anchoring filament components such as uncein, as detected by the 19-DEJ-1 monoclonal antibody. However, antibodies against the 3 respective laminin 5 chains, type IV collagen, and various type VII collagen epitopes (the aminoterminal NC1 domain, the central triple helical collagenous domain, and the carboxyterminal end of the triple helical collagenous domain) revealed a broad reticular staining pattern. Molecular screening of the type VII collagen gene (COL7A1) in the patients and their parents by heteroduplex analysis failed to detect any band shifts indicative of pathologic mutations. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the bullous component of Kindler syndrome is distinct from dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa caused by mutations in the type VII collagen gene. Additionally, the differential distribution patterns of uncein and laminin 5 in the patients' skin samples support the hypothesis that uncein and laminin 5 are different molecules.
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