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1/26. Effect of haemofiltration on pathological fibrinolysis due to severe sepsis: a case report.

    Bleeding due to coagulopathy is a frequent complication of severe sepsis, especially in burn patients. The primary treatment is aimed at the underlying cause but additional supportive measures, consisting mainly of coagulation factor replacement, are frequently necessary. We describe the salutary effect of continuous veno-venous haemofiltration (CVVH) with predilution on diffuse haemorrhage in a patient with severe septic shock and renal failure. The diffuse haemorrhage was initially treated with replacement of coagulation factors. prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time became normal while diffuse bleeding continued and the thrombelastogram showed evidence of fibrinolysis. A short period of CVVH lead to the cessation of bleeding which was reflected by a normal thrombelastogram.
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ranking = 1
keywords = haemorrhage
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2/26. Spontaneous inhibitors to coagulation factors.

    Spontaneous inhibitors to coagulation factors are autoantibodies that usually appear in the elderly, but may also occur in patients with immunological disorders such as lupus, lymphoma, asthma or drug reactions. Most antibodies are directed against factor viii, but any coagulation protein may be affected. They should be suspected in individuals who previously had normal haemostasis, but who now begin to experience bleeding into the skin and muscles, or suffer haemorrhages after routine procedures such as insertion of vascular catheters, intramuscular injections, or minor surgery. The haemostasis laboratory is critical in identifying the particular inhibitor and quantitating its potency. factor viii inhibitors prolong the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) but not the prothrombin time (PT), and incubating mixtures of patient plasma and normal plasma enhances the prolongation of the clotting time. The Bethesda assay provides a rough assessment of inhibitor potency. Inhibitors of von willebrand factor prolong the bleeding time and impair ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation. Factor V inhibitors are associated with a prolonged PTT and PT, not correctable with normal plasma. patients will often have a history of exposure to bovine thrombin in fibrin glue. The antibodies most difficult to recognize are those that alter fibrin polymerization or stabilization. Abnormal clot retraction or clot solubility in urea solutions are an important clue. The management of these disorders depends on characterization of the inhibitor, and using appropriate clotting factor concentrates to control acute bleeding. For example, recombinant human factor viii or desmopressin may be effective for patients with low titre factor viii inhibitors, whereas porcine factor viii, recombinant factor Vlla, or prothrombin complex concentrates stem bleeding in those with high titres. Inhibitors of von willebrand factor may be amenable to desmopressin, cryoprecipitate, or von willebrand factor concentrates. Some patients with factor V inhibitors have responded to platelet transfusions, as the platelet factor V may be shielded from the autoantibody. Bleeding due to factor xiii inhibitors may be managed with fibrogammin, a factor xiii concentrate. All patients should be treated for underlying disorders and given drugs such as corticosteroids and cytotoxic agents to suppress inhibitor formation. Major advances in new immunosuppressive technologies, such as monoclonal B-cell antibodies, offer hope of more effective therapies for spontaneous inhibitors to coagulation factors.
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keywords = haemorrhage
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3/26. Trauma-induced coagulopathy and treatment in kosovo.

    The 67th Combat Support Hospital at Camp Bondsteel, kosovo, treated victims of trauma on an almost daily basis at the beginning of U.S. peacekeeping efforts in the region. Military health care personnel must respond quickly and efficiently when confronted with patient wounds resulting in massive blood losses. The limited medical resources of a field hospital often complicate efforts to treat the most severe injuries. One such case involved a young farmer riddled with gunshot wounds. Early volume/blood resuscitation before, during, and after surgery led to a massive blood coagulopathy. This case study describes the actions the physicians and nurses initiated to save this victim of violence. The subsequent discussion delineates methods to reduce intraoperative blood losses, blood transfusion alternatives, and technological advances in trauma resuscitation.
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ranking = 5.5324180689933
keywords = blood loss
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4/26. Coagulopathy induced spinal intradural extramedullary haematoma: report of three cases and review of the literature.

    In a retrospective review of patients operated for coagulopathy induced spinal intradural-extramedullary haematoma the literature regarding coagulopathy induced spinal haemorrhage is reviewed and the etiology of these rare spinal subdural and subarachnoid haemorrhages is discussed. Spinal intradural haematomas are usually related to trauma or a previous lumbar puncture. A review of the literature revealed only a handful cases of spinal intradural haemorrhages occurring secondary to an underlying haematological disorder or an iatrogenic coagulopathy. Coagulopathy induced spinal haemorrhage should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute paraparesis in patients with co-existent haematological disorders or undergoing anticoagulation therapy. Due to the often mixed subdural and subarachnoid bleeding patterns we have termed this entity spinal intradural-extramedullary haematoma.
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keywords = haemorrhage
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5/26. brain involvement in haemolytic-uraemic syndrome: MRI features of coagulative necrosis.

    We describe radiological demonstration of brain involvement in haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS) in two siblings with a very different clinical course. While the brother presented with a mild, reversible encephalopathy, his sister developed high-signal lesions in the cortex, putamen and caudate nucleus on T1-weighted images, seen as dense areas on CT. biopsy revealed coagulative necrosis due to microthrombosis without haemorrhage, calcification or infection. These findings suggest a possible prognostic role for MRI in cases of encephalopathy due to HUS.
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keywords = haemorrhage
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6/26. Early acenocoumarol overanticoagulation among cytochrome P450 2C9 poor metabolizers.

    Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) is the enzyme that terminates the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. The heterozygous carriers of the two allelic variants CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 have been associated with impaired warfarin metabolism and a higher risk of haemorrhage. Only three CYP2C9 poor metabolizers (CYP2C9*3/CYP2C9*3) initiating warfarin treatment have so far been identified, all of them with a dramatic overdose occurring a few days after treatment initiation. acenocoumarol, another coumarinic anticoagulant, has recently been shown to be metabolized by CYP2C9. We report, for the first time, two cases of dramatic overanticoagulation occurring in patients starting acenocoumarol treatment while taking recommended doses (4 mg/day). In both cases, the overdose was discovered at the first INR control with values above 9. Genotyping revealed that the two patients were homozygous for the CYP2C9*3 allele. Our report highlights the need for CYP2C9 genotyping before starting oral anticoagulants in order to prevent early overanticoagulation episodes.
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7/26. brain haemorrhage in five infants with coagulopathy.

    Most intracranial haemorrhages in infants after the neonatal period are secondary to non-accidental injury. Occasionally brain haemorrhages in non-mobile infants are due to an inherited coagulopathy. This may often be diagnosed with a coagulation screen on admission. Little is known about the neurological outcome of infants in the latter group. Five infants are described who presented with acute spontaneous brain haemorrhage secondary to an inherited coagulopathy (n = 3) and vitamin k deficiency in alpha(1) antitrypsin deficiency (n = 1) and Alagille's syndrome (n = 1). Despite the critical clinical presentation and the severe imaging findings, these five infants made a good neurological recovery. Infants presenting with spontaneous ICH due to a significant (inherited) coagulopathy are usually easy to differentiate from non-accidental shaking injury; their bleeding pattern within the brain seems different from non-accidental shaking injury and neurodevelopment outcome appears better.
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ranking = 3.5
keywords = haemorrhage
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8/26. life-threatening envenoming by the Saharan horned viper (Cerastes cerastes) causing micro-angiopathic haemolysis, coagulopathy and acute renal failure: clinical cases and review.

    BACKGROUND: The desert horned vipers (Cerastes cerastes and C. gasperettii) are the most familiar snakes of the great deserts of North africa and the middle east, including the plains of iraq. They are responsible for many human snake bites. In Western countries, they are popular among exotic-snake keepers. AIM: To investigate mechanisms of life-threatening envenoming and treatment. DESIGN: Clinical investigation. methods: Clinical and laboratory studies with measurement of serum venom antigen concentrations by enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: Two men bitten while handling captive Saharan horned vipers (Cerastes cerastes) in europe developed extensive local swelling and life-threatening systemic envenoming, characterized by coagulopathy, increased fibrinolysis, thrombocytopenia, micro-angiopathic haemolytic anaemia and acute renal failure. The clinical picture is explicable by the presence in C. cerastes venom of several thrombin-like, Factor-X-activating, platelet-aggregating, haemorrhagic and nephrotoxic components. In one case, prophylactic use of subcutaneous epinephrine may have contributed to intracranial haemorrhage. The roles in treatment of heparin (rejected) and specific antivenom (recommended) are discussed. DISCUSSION: Cerastes cerastes is capable of life-threatening envenoming in humans. Optimal treatment of envenoming is by early administration of specific antivenom, and avoidance of ineffective and potentially-dangerous ancillary methods.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = haemorrhage
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9/26. Upper airway oedema following autologous blood transfusion from a wound drainage system.

    We report a case of a 70-yr-old white woman who underwent a revision of a total hip arthroplasty under general anaesthesia. The intraoperative course was stable without any complications and the estimated blood loss was 2500 ml. The patient received an autologous transfusion of blood from a wound drainage system in the recovery room. The transfusion was followed immediately by marked respiratory distress and upper airway oedema. She required emergency tracheal intubation and mechanical pulmonary ventilation. A coagulopathy also developed which was treated and resolved within 12 hr of the capillary leak phenomenon. The trachea was extubated on the first postoperative day and she had an uneventful course until discharge from the hospital two days later. We discuss the possible, aetiology of such a reaction to autologous blood including complement and platelet activation. It is suggested that reinfusion of nonwashed shed blood from a wound drainage system may present a hazard even though the fluid was autologous in origin.
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ranking = 2.7662090344967
keywords = blood loss
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10/26. FVIIa corrects the coagulopathy of fulminant hepatic failure but may be associated with thrombosis: a report of four cases.

    PURPOSE: During liver transplantation, excessive blood losses are correlated with increased morbidity and mortality. Blood losses are particularly high in the case of urgent liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) has shown promise in treating the coagulopathy of liver disease. We review our experience with the use of rFVIIa in treating the coagulopathy of FHF during urgent liver transplantation. CLINICAL FEATURES: We report four patients with FHF who met King's College criteria for liver transplantation and in whom rFVIIa was used after conventional means for treating the associated coagulopathy had failed. In all patients, the coagulation defect was corrected by rFVIIa. However, thrombotic complications occurred in two patients (myocardial ischemia and portal vein thrombosis) and the implication of rFVIIa cannot be excluded. CONCLUSION: We conclude that rFVIIa is effective in the correction of the coagulopathy associated with FHF. However, thrombotic events are of concern and therefore, further studies are warranted to define the safety of rFVIIa in that setting.
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ranking = 2.7662090344967
keywords = blood loss
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