Cases reported "Blood Loss, Surgical"

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1/309. Radical surgery for endometriosis.

    Infiltrative endometriosis is an uncommon condition that may involve all pelvic organs and is associated with considerable morbidity. A small percentage of patients will have disease that is unresponsive to hormonal therapy and is unsuitable for conservative surgery. Presented is a review of 5 case reports of patients who required radical surgery for control of symptoms caused by endometriosis. Radical surgery was associated with minimal morbidity and a high rate of resolution of symptoms. Radical surgery should be considered as part of the treatment strategy particularly when there is evidence of endometriosis invading into the adjacent gastrointestinal tract or urinary tract. ( info)

2/309. Acute hyperkalemia associated with intravenous epsilon-aminocaproic acid therapy.

    Epsilon-aminocaproic acid (Amicar) is used to treat severe hemorrhage refractory to usual medical management. This antifibrinolytic drug has been associated with a number of renal complications. However, there are no descriptions of this medication causing hyperkalemia. This report describes the development of hyperkalemia in a patient with underlying chronic renal insufficiency treated with intravenous epsilon-aminocaproic acid. The patient, who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, had no other obvious cause for the acute increase in serum potassium concentration. Based on data in animals and humans, the cationic amino acids lysine and arginine have been shown to enter muscle cells in exchange for potassium and lead to hyperkalemia through a shift of potassium from the intracellular to the extracellular space. Epsilon-aminocaproic acid, a synthetic amino acid structurally similar to lysine and arginine, also has been noted to cause an acute increase in serum potassium in anephric dogs infused with this medication. It is probable that the mechanism underlying the increase in serum potassium with epsilon-aminocaproic acid is also based on the shift of potassium from the intracellular to the extracellular space. Hence, it appears that intravenous epsilon-aminocaproic acid can also cause hyperkalemia in humans. ( info)

3/309. Successful thrombolysis for massive pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resection.

    We report the successful use of thrombolysis for acute massive pulmonary embolism 2 days after right lower lobectomy for bronchial adenocarcinoma. Pulmonary angiography revealed extensive clot unsuitable for surgical embolectomy. A bolus infusion of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator produced an immediate improvement in the patient's hemodynamic state. There was substantial blood loss requiring the transfusion of 21 units of blood over the postoperative period. The patient made a successful recovery and remained well at 1 year. ( info)

4/309. Repair of left ventricular rupture after mitral valve replacement: use of a Teflon patch and glue.

    rupture of the left ventricular wall is an infrequent but lethal complication after mitral valve replacement. We present the case of a patient in whom such a rupture was successfully repaired in the intensive care unit with a patch of Teflon felt stuck in place with glue. ( info)

5/309. Internal iliac artery embolisation for intractable bladder haemorrhage in the peri-operative phase.

    Intractable haemorrhage from the bladder wall during transurethral resection of bladder tumour is uncommon but potentially catastrophic. Internal iliac artery embolisation is a minimally invasive technique, which is now widely practised to stop bleeding from branches of these arteries is situations including pelvic malignancy, obstetric and gynaecological emergencies and trauma. We report its successful use peri-operatively, in an unfit, elderly patient with uncontrolled bleeding. ( info)

6/309. life-threatening haemorrhage following obturator artery injury during transurethral bladder surgery: a sequel of an unsuccessful obturator nerve block.

    In spite of prior blockade of the obturator nerve with 1% mepivacaine (8 ml) utilizing a nerve stimulator, violent leg jerking was evoked during transurethral electroresection of a bladder tumour approximately 1 h after the blockade in a 68-year-old man. The patient became severely hypotensive immediately following the jerking, and a large lower abdominal swelling concurrently developed. The urgent laparotomy indicated that the left obturator artery was severely injured by the resectoscope associated with the bladder perforation, causing acute massive haemorrhage. The patient recovered uneventfully after adequate surgery. Investigation of the literature suggested that both our nerve stimulation technique and anatomical approach were appropriate. It was therefore unlikely that our block resulted in failure because of an inappropriate site for deposition of the anaesthetic. However, consensus does not appear to have been obtained as to the concentration and volume of the anaesthetic necessary for prevention of the obturator nerve stimulation during the transurethral procedures. The concentration and volume of mepivacaine we used might have been too low and/or small, respectively, to profoundly block all the motor neuron fibres of the nerve. Alternatively, stimulation of the obturator nerve might occur because of the presence of some anatomical variant, such as the accessory obturator nerve or its abnormal branching. In conclusion, some uncertainty appears to exist in the effectiveness of the local anaesthetic blockade of the obturator nerve. In order to attain profound blockade of the motor neuron fibres of the obturator nerve and thereby prevent the thigh-adductor muscle contraction which can lead to life-threatening situations, we recommend, even with a nerve stimulator, to use a larger volume of a higher concentration of local anaesthetic with a longer duration in the obturator nerve block for the transurethral procedures. ( info)

7/309. Use of recombinant factor viia (NovoSeven) in a haemophilia A patient with inhibitor in kuwait.

    Development of inhibitors is a known complication in some haemophiliacs receiving coagulation factor replacement therapy. We report on the successful management of a young boy with haemophilia A with inhibitor using recombinant factor viia. We had failed to control bleeding in this patient following his circumcision, despite infusion with high doses of factor viii concentrate for 2 weeks. Recombinant factor viia is a useful 'factor viii bypassing agent' for the control of bleeding in patients with haemophilia A and B who develop inhibitors. We suggest that severely affected haemophiliacs should be absolved of ritual circumcision as a protective measure against what might become a life-threatening haemorrhage - especially in those with inhibitors. ( info)

8/309. safety and efficacy of three arthroscopic procedures using holmium: Yag laser in two high-responder haemophiliacs.

    We report here on the efficacy and safety of three arthroscopic procedures using a holmium: Yag laser in two high-responder haemophiliacs. The two patients were treated with an activated prothrombin complex concentrate (FEIBA; Immuno, Vienna, austria). Treatment was started just before surgery and continued for 4-8 days. On one occasion antifibrinolytics were concomitantly used without thromboembolic complication. Post-operative blood loss was slight, joint mobility was rapidly acceptable and full weight bearing without pain was possible on day 4. Such a procedure would appear to be superior to conventional arthroscopic synovectomy utilizing mechanical devices in haemophiliacs, because it might improve the quality of local haemostasis and the rapidity of post-operative recovery. In addition, it is also the technical procedure of choice in haemophilic patients with inhibitors who need synovectomy. ( info)

9/309. Convulsions and respiratory arrest in association with desmopressin administration for the treatment of a bleeding tonsil in a child with borderline haemophilia.

    Desmopressin (DDAVP) may be used to augment the action of factor viii in mild haemophilia. Its use has been associated with serious adverse effects. We report a case of a three-year-old child with a family history of haemophilia who suffered complications due to severe acute hyponatraemia following the administration of this drug for post-tonsillectomy bleeding. ( info)

10/309. Transperitoneal exclusion. A simple Third World solution for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    We present an operation never described before for dealing with abdominal aortic aneurysms by exclusion via a midline trans-abdominal approach. This breakthrough holds many advantages over conventional aneurysmorrahphy and requires further clinical trials. ( info)
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