Cases reported "Blue Toe Syndrome"

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1/24. Multiple spontaneous small bowel perforations due to systemic cholesterol atheromatous embolism.

    A-65-year-old man was admitted for coronary and peripheral angiography to evaluate angina pectoris and peripheral vascular disease. Following angiography, he suffered from blue toes, livedo reticularis and progressive renal failure. The patient's condition continued to deteriorate, including the development of malnutrition. Four months later he suddenly developed panperitonitis, went into shock and died. The autopsy verified multiple perforations of the small bowel with disseminated cholesterol atheromatous embolism. The other organs including kidney were also invaded by atheroembolism. This was a rare case of multiple spontaneous perforations of small bowel due to systemic cholesterol atheromatous embolism. ( info)

2/24. Clinical outcomes of renal cholesterol crystal embolization.

    Cholesterol crystal embolization is an increasingly recognized disease, presenting with a wide clinical spectrum, usually occurring in elderly men who undergo an angiographic procedure or vascular surgery. We report three patients who developed systemic cholesterol embolic disease and varying degrees of renal failure after angiographic interventions of the coronaries. ( info)

3/24. Penetrating ulceration of the infrarenal aorta: case reports of an embolic and an asymptomatic lesion.

    Penetrating aortic ulceration is uncommon in the infrarenal aorta. We describe a patient with a penetrating infrarenal aortic ulcer manifesting as blue toe syndrome, and a second patient with a similar lesion identified as an incidental finding. These two patients were treated for penetrating infrarenal aortic ulceration within the past 9 months at two university-affiliated hospitals, a regional veterans Administration Medical Center, and a County Medical Center. Both lesions demonstrated aneurysm changes with varying degrees of mural thrombus. The lesion filled with fresh thrombus proved labile, with embolization manifesting as blue toe syndrome. We support the aggressive treatment of aneurysmal penetrating aortic ulcer with aortic graft replacement to eliminate the potential for distal embolization and to obviate the risk of rupture and death. ( info)

4/24. Disseminated cholesterol embolism after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    blue toe syndrome caused by cholesterol emboli is a relatively benign disease. However, disseminated cholesterol embolism is a life-threatening condition. We describe here the case of a 71-year-old female admitted because of anterior chest pain and intermittent claudication. Following cardiac catheterization, warfarin potassium was administered. However, the patient's toes soon darkened bilaterally, and BUN and creatinine levels increased from the normal value. skin discoloration and renal failure were improved after stopping warfarin potassium administration. The patient underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and left femoropopliteal bypass. cerebral infarction and renal failure occurred postoperatively due to disseminated cholesterol embolism. The patient died from renal failure on the 16th postoperative day without regaining consciousness following surgery. For high risk patients, interventional procedures to the ascending aorta must be avoided. When CABG cannot be avoided for coronary revascularization, off-pump bypass and use of arterial grafts are recommended. ( info)

5/24. Temporary spinal cord stimulation for peripheral cholesterol embolism.

    Cholesterol embolism is often an unrecognized complication of some cardiac and vascular procedures (i.e. coronarography, angioplasty, aortocoronary bypass, abdominal aortic aneurysmectomy) and of therapies affecting coagulation (thrombolysis, anticoagulation). The degree of pain associated with ischaemic and necrotic lesions secondary to cholesterol embolism involving the lower limbs is disproportionate to the extension of tissue involvement. spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been recognized as effective in relief of pain of ischaemic and neuropathic nature, although its mechanism of action is still not completely clear. The authors are unaware of previous reports of peripheral cholesterol embolism treated by SCS. Two case reports of inferior limb ischaemia secondary to cholesterol embolism in patients who had undergone cardiac invasive procedures. Temporary surgical implantation of SCS devices, which were removed after 4 to 6 weeks. Pain relief was achieved within 1 to 4 hours of surgical procedure. Any analgesic medications could be immediately discontinued. Pain control was effective and normal daily activities were rapidly regained. Ischaemic lesions healed within 4 to 6 weeks of SCS. Pain control is the most critical aspect of the management of peripheral cholesterol embolism without visceral organ involvement. SCS provided effective pain relief in the reported cases and its established ability to improve peripheral microcirculation allowed rapid resolution of necrotic lesions. Temporary SCS should be considered in the management of painful necrotic skin lesions secondary to iatrogenic cholesterol embolism. ( info)

6/24. angioplasty with stenting is effective in treating blue toe syndrome.

    blue toe syndrome is a manifestation of distal embolization associated with significant pain and risk of tissue loss. The recommended treatment options for this problem include endarterectomy or bypass with exclusion of the source of emboli. Although focal arterial stenosis can be effectively treated with angioplasty,it is unclear whether performing angioplasty in a lesion suspected of causing distal embolization might actually worsen the condition or what long-term effects this would have in preventing future embolization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment and outcome of a series of patients with unilateral blue toe syndrome treated with percutaneous angioplasty and stenting. During a 5-year period, a total of 8 patients were identified with unilateral blue toe syndrome. ankle/brachial indices (ABIs) were obtained, followed by arteriography. The study group included 4 men and 4 women with an age range of 35 to 83 years. Their atherosclerotic risk factors included smoking (8), hypertension (5), diabetes mellitus (3), and hypercholesterolemia (1). One patient had a history of illicit drug use. The patients were followed up by repeat clinical examinations and vascular laboratory studies. Arteriography typically demonstrated a focal preocclusive lesion with thrombus at the distal end of the lesion. angioplasty and stent placement was technically successful in all cases. The ABIs increased following angioplasty (before 0.81 /- 0.05; after 1.02 /-.05). The symptoms resolved in all 8 patients over the ensuing month, and there were no recurrences with a mean follow-up of 18.5 months (range 4 to 36 months). There was 1 death at 4 months associated with preexisting colon carcinoma.Unilateral arterial to arterial emboli were found in association with focal preocclusive lesions. Despite the presence of thrombus in some of the lesions, these patients were not acutely worse following angioplasty. There was good initial angiographic success in all cases. There was also hemodynamic improvement as shown by the increased ankle/brachial indices. Although long-term follow-up is not available, these intermediate results suggest that angioplasty and stenting should be considered a reasonable alternative to standard operative approaches for patients with blue to syndrome associated with embolization from a focal stenosis. ( info)

7/24. Early experience using the Wallgraft in the management of distal microembolism from common iliac artery patholology.

    blue toe syndrome commonly occurs as a result of aneurysmal or atherosclerotic disease in the iliac arteries. Surgery, angioplasty, or intraarterial stent placement are the most common treatment options but the optimal management has not been defined. Here we report managing distal microembolization from iliac artery atherosclerosis associated with aneurysmal dilation with the Wallgraft Endoprosthesis, a self-expanding metallic stent covered with Dacron. Three common iliac arteries in two patients were treated using this device. A 79-year-old male presented with unilateral symptoms and an 83-year-old female with bilateral disease. Arteriography demonstrated complex plaque at the aortic bifurcation associated with aneurysmal dilation of the distal common iliac artery in both patients. This complex disease was successfully covered using the Wallgraft Endoprosthesis. Postoperatively the patients received aspirin, their toe lesions healed, and neither has had a recurrence after 16 months. Covered stents offer the theoretic advantage of completely excluding the diseased segment, preventing the escape of thrombus or plaque debris, and covering aneurysmal dilation in the artery. ( info)

8/24. Atheroembolic signals detected by Doppler ultrasound scan monitoring in a patient with blue toe syndrome: report of a case.

    It is generally accepted that clinical symptoms give the only clue to the presence of atheroemboli in patients with blue toe syndrome (BTS). We report a case of atheroemboli originating from the abdominal aortic aneurysm in which Doppler ultrasound successfully detected atheroembolic signals, which vanished immediately after surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first such case to be documented. When a 67-year-old man was given warfarin after aortocoronay bypass, digital cyanosis suddenly developed, which became worse and was very painful. Angiography and computed tomography scanning revealed an infrarenal aortic aneurysm with mural thrombus. Doppler ultrasound detected atheroemboli as high-intensity transient signals in the bilateral tibioperoneal trunks. After aneurysmectomy and a bifurcated graft replacement, the cyanotic and painful toes improved immediately. Microscopically, cholesterin crystals were seen in the arterioles of the amputated digits. Thus, Doppler ultrasound could be a valuable test to determine the appropriate treatment for patients at risk of atheroembolic BTS. ( info)

9/24. blue toe syndrome: a rare complication of acute pancreatitis.

    CONTEXT: blue toe syndrome is an unusual complication of acute pancreatitis. It is characterized by tissue ischemia secondary to cholesterol crystal or atherothrombotic embolization leading to the occlusion of small vessels. Clinical presentation can range from a cyanotic toe to a diffuse multiorgan systemic disease that can mimic other systemic illnesses. CASE REPORT: Here we describe a young male who developed this complication after acute alcoholic pancreatitis. ( info)

10/24. Cholesterol crystal embolization (CCE) after cardiac catheterization: a case report and a review of 36 cases in the Japanese literature.

    Cholesterol crystal embolization (CCE) is a complication of atherosclerosis. A 67-year-old Japanese man underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. After the surgery, he underwent coronary angiography via the right femoral artery. Twelve days later, he suddenly developed acalculous cholecystitis and was treated with antibiotics. Gradual deterioration in renal function, purplish discoloration of the distal portion of his toes, and eosinophilia were noted. We performed a skin biopsy and made a diagnosis of CCE. Cilostazol and intravenous heparin improved the symptoms and decreased the creatinine level. We retrospectively studied the clinical features of 36 cases registered with a diagnosis of CCE in the Japanese literature. ( info)
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