Cases reported "Body Weight"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/28. A case of kwashiorkor in the UK.

    A case of kwashiorkor in a British child of Caucasian origin is described. The 5-year-old boy was referred to hospital for investigation of a persistent anaemia, but on examination was found to have classical features of kwashiorkor. He was stunted with both height and weight below the fifth centile and had mild pitting oedema in both legs. His hair was pale and easily pluckable and a soft liver edge was palpable. plasma albumin concentration was 16 g/l and the plasma amino acid pattern, which revealed markedly reduced levels of essential but normal to high non-essential amino acids, was similar to that described in kwashiorkor in uganda. A dietary history revealed that for about 2 years the child's diet had contained very little protein but adequate energy and had been supplemented with multivitamin pills. There was no evidence of other pathology, neglect or abuse and the child responded rapidly to refeeding with a balanced diet.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = energy
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/28. Effects of insulin-like growth factor i (IGF-I) therapy on body composition and insulin resistance in IGF-I gene deletion.

    We have recently reported a patient with a homozygous partial deletion of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene, resulting in IGF-I deficiency, insulin resistance, and short stature. Recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) therapy has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity (Si) and growth in other causes of IGF-I deficiency. We now report results of 1 yr of rhIGF-I therapy on body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), insulin sensitivity, and linear growth in this patient. rhIGF-I therapy was initiated at age 16.07 yr (bone age, 14.2 yr), at a starting dose of 40 microg/kg daily, increasing after 3 months to 80 microg/kg daily. body composition, BMD, markers of bone mineralization, and auxological parameters (height, weight) were measured at 0, 6, and 12 months after start of therapy. Si, acute insulin response to glucose, and glucose effectiveness were determined at baseline, 3 months, and 12 months into therapy. On IGF-I therapy, body mass index increased from 17 kg/m2 to 18.6 kg/m2. body composition studies (dual-energy x-ray absorbtiometry) revealed an initial decrease in total body fat, from 19.9% at baseline to 15.1% at 6 months; but by 12 months of therapy, this had reversed, with an increase to 21.8%. Si, calculated using Bergman's minimal model, was substantially reduced at baseline at 1.45 x 10-4 min-1 (microU/mL) [normal value, 5.1 x 10-4 min 1 (lean adult male)]. rhIGF-I therapy resulted in a dose-related improvement of Si into the normal range (NR) (rhIGF-I dose: 40 microg/kg x day, Si = 2.06 x 10-4 min-l; rhIGF-I dose: 80 microg/kg x day, Si = 4.39 x 10-4 min-1). Baseline reduction in Si was accompanied by elevated acute insulin response to glucose, which also fell in a dose-dependent manner. Baseline BMD was severely reduced when compared with age-matched controls (-4.88 SD); however, calculation of bone mineral apparent density indicated that the true reduction in BMD was minimal. rhIGF-I therapy increased BMD by 17% and bone mineral apparent density by 7%, indicating that IGF-I has a greater effect on bone growth than bone mineralization. Bone turnover markers also increased on rhIGF-I; mean serum osteocalcin: 8.3 ng/mL pretreatment, 21.7 ng/mL after 6 months of rhIGF-I (NR for adult male, 3.4-9.1 ng/mL); mean bone specific alkaline phosphatase: 36.5 U/L pretreatment, 82.2 U/L after 6 months of therapy (NR for adult male, 15-41). Height velocity increased from 3.8 cm/yr pretreatment to 7.3 cm/yr on 80 microg/kg.day of rhIGF-I. In this patient with severe insulin resistance, therapy with rhIGF-I resulted in beneficial effects on Si, body composition, bone size, and linear growth. These results have implications for IGF-I therapy in a variety insulin resistant states.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = energy
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/28. parenteral nutrition in severely burned children.

    In adults supplemental parenteral nutrition (PN) is advisable in burns over 40% especially when weight loss exceeds 10% of body weight. In children with smaller reserves and higher requirement of proteins and energy no rigid scheme for parenteral supplementation is used at our unit. In a young infant it may be added already at a 20-30% deep burn, especially with connected gastrointestinal tract problems, infection etc. Metabolic and protein requirements are estimated 50-100% in addition to their normal needs. Hypertonic glucose (gradually increased from 20-40%), covered with insulin in the early phase, is used as source of carbohydrates. L-amino acid mixture containing the "pediatric essential amino acids" histidine and cysteine is given as a nitrogen source. 20% Intralipid is given in a gradually increased amount of 2-4 g/kg per day to provide calories and essential fatty acids. Among electrolytes K, Ca, P and Mg must be added. Increased amounts of vitamin C and folate are needed by burned children. Vitamin E is also required during prolonged lipid administration. trace elements (Zn. Fe, etc.) are supplied orally or i.v. with special solutions or fresh plasma infusions. Our experience with parenteral nutrition in severely burned children will be presented. There were no severe metabolic side-effects but sepsis represented the major problem. The concomitant heat preservation by warming the room and use of infra-red heaters is emphasized.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = energy
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/28. megestrol acetate to correct the nutritional status in an adolescent with growth hormone deficiency: Increase of appetite and body weight but only by increase of body water and fat mass followed by profound cortisol and testosterone depletion.

    megestrol acetate (MA) is a synthetic, orally active derivative of the naturally occurring hormone progesterone. MA is increasingly used to correct loss of appetite and improve the nutritional status. We used MA in an adolescent with growth hormone (GH) deficiency due to former irradiation therapy in order to evaluate if MA can improve the nutritional status. In fact, MA increased appetite and weight dose-dependent. The energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry changed from hypo- to normometabolism. However, weight gain was first primarily due to an increase in body water and then in fat mass. The gain of fat mass was much more prominent than the gain of fat free mass. As important side-effect, MA lead to rapid and profound cortisol and testosterone depletion after only 10 days with a long-lasting effect on testosterone depletion. Therefore, MA as a single therapy cannot be recommended to improve the nutritional status. If MA is given, cortisol and testosterone levels have to be monitored and supplemented as needed.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.0014993079652
keywords = energy, radiation
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/28. abetalipoproteinemia-like lipid profile and acanthocytosis in a young woman with anorexia nervosa.

    We report the case of a 17-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa (AN) who developed an abetalipoproteinemia-like lipid profile and acanthocytosis. These abnormalities resolved slowly as her nutritional status improved. We considered 3 possible causes of an abetalipoproteinemia-like lipid profile in AN: (1) depletion of hepatic substrate for apolipoprotein B synthesis, (2) lack of exogenous fatty acids with exhaustion of endogenous stores of triglycerides in adipose tissue, and (3) preservation of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mass. This unusual case provides important clues that enhance our understanding of lipid metabolism under exogenous and endogenous fat deprivation and highlights the pivotal role of LPL as a gatekeeper of the energy source.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = energy
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/28. The use of intradialytic parenteral nutrition to treat malnutrition: a case study.

    Protein energy malnutrition in dialysis patients has been well-described in the literature. Most malnourished patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) suffer from a mixed marasmus-kwashiorkor type of malnutrition with loss of both somatic and visceral protein mass. Malnutrition is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Up to 50% of patients on dialysis have protein energy malnutrition (Mortelmans & Vanholder, 1999). Malnutrition may be under-recognized and under-reported in dialysis patients. Malnutrition may result from inadequate food intake secondary to the uremic condition, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, altered taste and other physiologic conditions that impede food intake or metabolism. The usual indices of nutritional assessment--body weight, body mass index (BMI), anthropometrics, etc., may be inaccurate in patients with ESRD, as the results are often skewed by fluid retention. Therefore, we often rely on weight loss, bloodwork, a pre-dialysis low serum potassium, phosphorus and urea, as early signs of a decreased food intake. When patients are malnourished, measures such as oral supplements and/or tube feedings may be used to augment protein and calorie intake. However, when these interventions are inadequate to reverse the malnutrition condition, intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) should be implemented. Although there is no definite supportive data to show that the use of IDPN improves morbidity and mortality of dialysis patients, there are data to support that IDPN has positive effects on numerous nutritional parameters (Acchiardo, 2000; Capelli et al., 1994; Foulks, 1999; Hiroshige et al., 1998; Ikizler et al., 1995; Korzets et al., 1999; Mortelmans & Vanholder, 1999; Saunders et al., 1999; Smolle et al., 1995). In this article, we will discuss the causes of malnutrition in dialysis patients, the use of IDPN on one of our patients, and the potential complications associated with IDPN.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = energy
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/28. Conjugated bile acid replacement therapy in short bowel syndrome patients with a residual colon.

    AIM: To test the efficacy of cholylsarcosine (synthetic conjugated bile acid) and ox bile extracts (mixture of natural conjugated bile acids) on fat absorption, diarrhea, and nutritional state in four short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients with a residual colon not requiring parenteral alimentation. methods: The effect of cholylsarcosine (2 g/meal) on steatorrhea and diarrhea was examined in short-term balance studies with a constant fat intake in all four patients. The effect of continuous cholylsarcosine ingestion on nutritional state was assessed by changes in body weight in three patients. In two patients, the effects of cholylsarcosine were compared with those of ox bile extracts. Because of the low incidence rate of SBS this is not a controlled study. RESULTS: In balance studies, cholylsarcosine increased fat absorption from 65.5 to 94.5 g/day (a 44 % increment), an energy gain of 261 kcal/d. Fecal weight increased by 26 %. In two patients natural conjugated bile acids also reduced steatorrhea, but greatly increased diarrhea. As outpatients consuming an unrestricted diet and ingesting cholylsarcosine, three patients gained weight at an average rate of 0.9 kg/week without worsening of diarrheal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Cholylsarcosine is efficacious and safe for enhancing fat absorption and nutritional status in short bowel syndrome patients with residual colon. Natural conjugated bile acids improve steatorrhea to a smaller extent and greatly worsen diarrhea.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = energy
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/28. Management of methylmalonic acidaemia by combined liver-kidney transplantation.

    Methylmalonic acidaemia (MMA) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism that typically presents in infancy with recurrent episodes of metabolic acidosis, developmental delay and failure to thrive. The disease course is complicated by the development of chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis progressing to end-stage renal disease in adolescence. We describe two adolescents with cobalamin-nonresponsive MMA (mut0) who developed polyuria, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, dystonia but normal synthetic liver function. Both patients received combined liver-kidney transplantation (CLKT), preceded by a single pretransplant haemodialysis for clearance of methylmalonic acid. Post CLKT there was 95-97% reduction in serum and urine methylmalonic acid, leading to significant liberalization of dietary protein intake and a consequent increase in body mass index, muscle strength and energy. In addition, renal function normalized and clinical neurological status stabilized. We propose that CLKT be considered as a therapeutic option early in the course of cobalamin-nonresponsive MMA. Progressive tubulointerstitial nephritis with disabling polyuria is a confounder in patient management even in the absence of end-stage renal disease. Successful CLKT restores methylmalonyl-coa mutase enzyme levels in the liver and kidney, improves clearance of methylmalonic acid with resultant dietary protein liberalization, and offers excellent graft and patient outcomes with improvement in quality of life.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = energy
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/28. Diencephalic syndrome due to hypothalamic tumor: a model of the relationship between weight and puberty onset.

    CONTEXT: Changes in body weight, statural growth rate, and puberty may be the presenting symptoms of hypothalamic-pituitary tumors. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between the tumor and its treatment and the weight, growth rate, and onset of puberty, using the diencephalic syndrome of emaciation as model. PATIENTS: Eleven patients seen before 1 yr of age, except one aged 9 yr, for diencephalic syndrome of emaciation due to hypothalamic pilocytic astrocytoma, were treated by surgical resection (n = 9), cranial irradiation (n = 7), and/or chemotherapy (n = 10). RESULTS: At diagnosis, growth rate was normal, despite the emaciation, and there was no hypothalamic-pituitary deficiency, except in the oldest patient. After tumor treatment, all had GH and thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiencies, but only three, who underwent major surgical resection, also had ACTH deficiency and diabetes insipidus. Eight became obese, and all but the oldest had transient precocious puberty. plasma leptin concentrations were very low at diagnosis, increased after tumor treatment, and decreased transiently in one boy when the testosterone increased. The plasma soluble leptin receptor concentrations changed in the opposite direction, leading to an increase in the free leptin index, including in the three patients whose tumor was reduced without surgery. The body mass index was correlated positively with plasma leptin (rho = 0.73, P = 0.0004) and free leptin index (rho = 0.63, P < 0.004) and negatively with ghrelin (rho = -0.49, P < 0.03) concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: The obesity that occurs after treatment of hypothalamic tumors is not due to dysregulation of leptin secretion because it and plasma soluble leptin receptor remain regulated by factors like testosterone. This study also shows the influence of weight, possibly via leptin secretion, on the transient hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal activation that occurs during the first year of life.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.0014993079651923
keywords = radiation
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/28. Malnutrition, a rare form of child abuse: diagnostic criteria.

    Infantile malnutrition is often difficult to diagnose as it is rarely observed in industrialized countries. It may be associated with physical violence or occur in isolation. The essential clinical sign is height and weight retardation, but malnutrition also causes a variety of internal and bone lesions, which lead to neuropsychological sequelae and death. We report a rare case of death by malnutrition in a female child aged 6 1/2 months. The infant presented height and weight growth retardation and internal lesions related to prolonged protein-energy malnutrition (fat and muscle wasting, thymic atrophy, liver steatosis) resulting in a picture of marasmus or kwashiorkor. We detail the positive and negative criteria that established the diagnosis of abuse, whereas the parents had claimed a simple dietary error.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = energy
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Body Weight'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.