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1/283. Long-term follow-up of skeletal dysplasia in thalassaemia major.

    We report skeletal changes due to deferoxamine (DF) in 15/29 patients with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia major (TM), followed longitudinally for growth assessment. Clinically the earliest signs were decline in height and/or sitting height growth rate, leg and back pain with restricted movement and limb deformity. Radiologically metaphyseal and spinal changes were seen in 5 subjects and vertebral lesions alone in 10. The metaphyseal changes were mild, moderate or severe and affected all long bones, but were most pronounced at wrists and knees. They progressed from widening of the growth plate and defects of metaphyseal margins to appearance of radiolucent pseudocystic areas and, in severe cases, of cupped, rickets-like metaphyses. The spinal changes proceeded from osseous defects of ventral upper and lower edges of vertebrae and biconvex contours of end-plates to platyspondyly with decreased vertebral body height. After DF dose reduction, metaphyseal changes regressed in 2 patients, while they progressed in 3, requiring corrective surgery for severe valgus knee. Spinal abnormalities either remained unchanged or progressed. Final height was very short in patients with spondylometaphyseal lesions, short and disproportionate in patients with only spinal involvement.
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2/283. Mesomelic dysplasia with periosteal thickening, radio-humeral dislocation, osteoporosis and multiple fractures.

    We report a boy with a new form of mesomelic dysplasia characterised by short stature, multifocal periosteal thickening, radio-humeral dislocation, osteoporosis and multiple fractures with minimal trauma. electrophoresis of fibroblast collagens detected defects in type III and type V collagen. CONCLUSION: Bone dysplasias presenting with osteopenia, abnormal trabecular pattern, bone fragility, and periosteal thickening suggest a collagenopathy. A possible collagen defect requires biochemical investigations.
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3/283. focal dermal hypoplasia: report of a case with cutaneous and skeletal manifestations.

    focal dermal hypoplasia is a rare genodermatosis characterized by developmental defects of the skin, resulting in widespread linear lesions of dermal hypoplasia with adipose tissue in the dermis. We describe a 13-year-old girl who has typical cutaneous lesions which have been present since birth; she also has some of the associated dental, nail and skeletal abnormalities, while an X-ray of the long bones osteopathia striata is visible, a feature seen in a high proportion of cases of focal dermal hypoplasia. Eighty-eight per cent of the case reports in the literature are of females and X-linked dominance is the likely mode of inheritance. It has also been proposed that the condition is lethal in homozygous males and the high frequency of miscarriages on the maternal side of this patient's family is consistent with that lethality in males. The literature, particularly with regard to pathogenesis and inheritance, is discussed.
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4/283. A mild variant of Desbuquois dysplasia.

    On the basis of three newly observed cases (a pair of siblings and a sporadic case) and one previously reported case, we describe the clinical and radiological phenotype of a skeletal dysplasia resembling Desbuquois dysplasia. The skeletal alterations in the present disorder, including generalized osteopenia, mild modification of the vertebral endplates, epiphyseal flattening of the long bones, broad proximal femora with a spur-like projection of the lesser trochanters (a monkey wrench appearance of the proximal femora), and advanced carpal skeletal age, are almost identical to those of Desbuquois dysplasia. However, postnatal growth failure and minor spondylo-articular problems in the present disorder contrast with the conspicuous prenatal growth failure and severe spondylo-articular deformities of Desbuquois dysplasia. Short stature in the present disorder does not reach the degree of Desbuquois dysplasia. Molecular investigation of one patient excluded abnormalities of the diastrophic dysplasia sulphate transporter gene. CONCLUSION: The combination of skeletal alterations identical to those of Desbuquois dysplasia with milder short stature and spondylo-articular problems in the present patients suggests the nosological proposal of "a mild variant of Desbuquois dysplasia".
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5/283. Fracture reduction and deformity correction with the hexapod Ilizarov fixator.

    A configuration for the Ilizarov external fixator with six distractors and 12 ball joints in the form of a hexapod was developed. The system allows for six degrees of freedom bone fragment displacement by controlling the distractors. Using this assembly, universal three-dimensional corrections or reductions are possible without the need for complicated joint mechanisms. The device was used in 16 patients: five had displaced tibial fractures with severe soft tissue damage, 10 had deformities or pseudarthroses subsequent to treatment of tibial fractures, and one had an axis deviation in the course of tibial lengthening. Translational (to 40 mm) and rotational deformities (to 33 degrees) were corrected. Final radiographic examinations after the correction procedure was complete showed median residual deformities of 3.5 mm (range, 0-5 mm) and 1 degree (range, 0 degree-4 degrees) in the anteroposterior projection and of 1.5 mm (range, 0-6 mm) and less than 1 degree (range, 0 degree-9 degrees) in the lateral projection. The construction is a useful and important addition to the Ilizarov fixator system. As a bone fixation device it is unique in that its optimal use depends on the availability of computer software.
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6/283. hyperostosis generalisata with striations of the bones: report of a female case and a review of the literature.

    We report on a 70-year-old woman with generalized skeletal alterations, characterized by marked diaphyseal expansion of the long bones and coarse striations of the trabeculae of the tubular bones, ribs, pelvis and vertebral bodies. These findings were consistent with hyperostosis genralisata with striations of the bones, first described by Fairbank. biopsy of the femur revealed a featureless sclerosed bone. This is the first report of a female patient with this rare sclerosing bone dysplasia.
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7/283. Tooth root resorption associated with a familial bone dysplasia affecting mother and daughter.

    The dental findings are presented of a mother and daughter who suffer from an as yet unclassified bone dysplasia that shows features of both hereditary hyperphosphatasia and familial expansile osteolysis. Both patients have experienced progressive root resorption of permanent teeth, deafness, and high alkaline phosphatase levels. The mother has a more advanced bone dysplasia which has led to progressive skeletal deformity and bone pain. The kindred is consistent with an autosomal dominant pattern, and the mutation(s) is thought to be in chromosome 18q21-22 region. Conventional treatment strategies of root resorption offer only a poor prognosis for the dentition. Therapy using alendronate, a bisphosphonate compound and a potent inhibitor of osteoclastic activity, has reduced alkaline phosphatase levels, bone pain, and may offer an effective strategy to prevent tooth root resorption in this group of diseases.
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8/283. Craniometaphyseal dysplasia. Report of a case.

    Craniometaphyseal dysplasia, often referred to as Pyle's disease, is a hereditary disease involving the expansion of the metaphyses of the long bones, giving the appearance of an Erlenmeyer flask. There is diffuse hyperostosis of the entire cranial vault, along with absence or decreased development of the paranasal sinuses. In the case presented here the mouth demonstrated an abnormality wide maxilla with a slight palatal vault. Genetically, this appeared to be a dmoninant form of dysplasia.
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9/283. IMAGe, a new clinical association of intrauterine growth retardation, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genital anomalies.

    We report three boys with adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) and additional findings that represent a new syndrome, IMAGe: Intrauterine growth retardation, Metaphyseal dysplasia, AHC, and Genital anomalies. Each presented shortly after birth with growth retardation and severe adrenal insufficiency. Each of the three patients had mild dysmorphic features, bilateral cryptorchidism, a small penis, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Skeletal surveys revealed metaphyseal dysplasia in all three and epiphyseal dysplasia in two. The patients had documented or suspected hypercalciuria and/or hypercalcemia, resulting in nephrocalcinosis in one and in prenatal liver and spleen calcifications in another. AHC presents most often either as an isolated abnormality, caused by mutations in the DAX1 gene, or as part of an Xp21 contiguous gene syndrome, caused by a deletion of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy, glycerol kinase, and DAX1 genes. All three patients with the IMAGe association had normal creatine kinase levels and no evidence of glycerol kinase deficiency. sequence analysis of dna from these patients revealed no mutation in the DAX1- or steroidogenic factor-1-coding sequences, nor was a deletion of DAX1 detected. Identification of the molecular basis of the IMAGe association will give new insight into the pathogenesis of this syndromic relationship involving bone, adrenal cortical, and pituitary development.
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10/283. SPONASTRIME dysplasia: report of an 11-year-old boy and review of the literature.

    SPONASTRIME (SPOndylar and NAsal changes, with STRIations of the MEtaphyses) dysplasia is a rare, autosomal recessive bone disorder first described by Fanconi et al. [1983: Helv Paediatr Acta 38:267-280]. Radiographic findings include abnormal vertebral bodies with age-dependent changes, and striations of the metaphyses, scoliosis, and retarded ossification of the carpal bones. Physical features include severe short stature, lumbar lordosis, midface hypoplasia, frontal bossing, and a depressed nasal root. To date, 12 patients from 6 families have been reported. Four additional patients have been reported with a variant of this condition, which includes mental retardation. We report on an 11-year-old boy with features consistent with SPONASTRIME dysplasia. Height was 106.1 cm (-6 SD). He had a coarse appearing face with a depressed nasal bridge, short, upturned nose, and midface hypoplasia. intelligence was normal. A clinical evaluation at 6 years of age suggested the diagnosis of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED). However, genetics evaluation at 11 years of age with repeat radiologic studies revealed delayed carpal ossification (-4 to -5 SD), metaphyseal irregularities and striations most notably in the distal femurs and the proximal tibias, lumbar lordosis, narrow interpedicular distances of the lumbar spine, and pear-shaped vertebral bodies. These findings were most consistent with the diagnosis of SPONASTRIME dysplasia, and not SED. Although radiographic findings of SPONASTRIME dysplasia are distinguishable from SED, the physical appearance may be similar. Many bone dysplasias have overlapping radiographic findings and clinical presentation but with different recurrence risks, making genetic counseling a challenge.
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