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1/186. Long-term follow-up of skeletal dysplasia in thalassaemia major.

    We report skeletal changes due to deferoxamine (DF) in 15/29 patients with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia major (TM), followed longitudinally for growth assessment. Clinically the earliest signs were decline in height and/or sitting height growth rate, leg and back pain with restricted movement and limb deformity. Radiologically metaphyseal and spinal changes were seen in 5 subjects and vertebral lesions alone in 10. The metaphyseal changes were mild, moderate or severe and affected all long bones, but were most pronounced at wrists and knees. They progressed from widening of the growth plate and defects of metaphyseal margins to appearance of radiolucent pseudocystic areas and, in severe cases, of cupped, rickets-like metaphyses. The spinal changes proceeded from osseous defects of ventral upper and lower edges of vertebrae and biconvex contours of end-plates to platyspondyly with decreased vertebral body height. After DF dose reduction, metaphyseal changes regressed in 2 patients, while they progressed in 3, requiring corrective surgery for severe valgus knee. Spinal abnormalities either remained unchanged or progressed. Final height was very short in patients with spondylometaphyseal lesions, short and disproportionate in patients with only spinal involvement.
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2/186. Mesomelic dysplasia with periosteal thickening, radio-humeral dislocation, osteoporosis and multiple fractures.

    We report a boy with a new form of mesomelic dysplasia characterised by short stature, multifocal periosteal thickening, radio-humeral dislocation, osteoporosis and multiple fractures with minimal trauma. electrophoresis of fibroblast collagens detected defects in type III and type V collagen. CONCLUSION: Bone dysplasias presenting with osteopenia, abnormal trabecular pattern, bone fragility, and periosteal thickening suggest a collagenopathy. A possible collagen defect requires biochemical investigations.
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3/186. Electrical impedance measurements with the CI24M cochlear implant for a child with Mondini dysplasia.

    Electrical impedance measurements can give useful information about the status of individual electrodes of a cochlear implant. Impedances within the normal range (when measured in the common ground mode of stimulation) suggest that current flow occurs in the tissue and fluid of the cochlea. Low impedance measurements may suggest that particular electrodes are short circuiting, whereas high impedances might be due to a broken electrode wire or an electrode only in contact with air. In the case discussed, low impedance measurements were recorded intra-operatively from a child with Mondini dysplasia on electrodes 1-13 of a Nucleus CI24M device. Post-operatively the impedances had returned to the expected range and were comparable with other patients implanted with the CI24M device. Possible reasons for this are discussed. It was thought that impedances were low intra-operatively due to a larger-than-normal proportion of fluid surrounding the electrode array, rather than short circuits occurring along the array, as suggested by the dps7 software.
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4/186. A mild variant of Desbuquois dysplasia.

    On the basis of three newly observed cases (a pair of siblings and a sporadic case) and one previously reported case, we describe the clinical and radiological phenotype of a skeletal dysplasia resembling Desbuquois dysplasia. The skeletal alterations in the present disorder, including generalized osteopenia, mild modification of the vertebral endplates, epiphyseal flattening of the long bones, broad proximal femora with a spur-like projection of the lesser trochanters (a monkey wrench appearance of the proximal femora), and advanced carpal skeletal age, are almost identical to those of Desbuquois dysplasia. However, postnatal growth failure and minor spondylo-articular problems in the present disorder contrast with the conspicuous prenatal growth failure and severe spondylo-articular deformities of Desbuquois dysplasia. Short stature in the present disorder does not reach the degree of Desbuquois dysplasia. Molecular investigation of one patient excluded abnormalities of the diastrophic dysplasia sulphate transporter gene. CONCLUSION: The combination of skeletal alterations identical to those of Desbuquois dysplasia with milder short stature and spondylo-articular problems in the present patients suggests the nosological proposal of "a mild variant of Desbuquois dysplasia".
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5/186. Variability in kyphomelic dysplasia.

    Four infants with kyphomelic dysplasia ascertained from three families demonstrate variability within the syndrome. In the first family, sibling recurrence in female sibs was noted with atypical kyphomelic dysplasias, suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance. In the second family, with a male affected with the 'typical findings' of lethal kyphomelic dysplasia, diagnosis of a skeletal dysplasia was suspected at 29-30 weeks' gestation following US detection of short, bent femurs. In the third family, with a female affected, severe radiographic changes were documented at birth. The clinical course of the disease was mild with almost complete regression of the radiographic findings at the age of 7 years.
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6/186. Variable expression in a dominantly inherited skeletal dysplasia with similarities to brachydactyly E and spondyloepiphyseal-spondyloperipheral dysplasia.

    Variable expression and penetrance of dominantly inherited disorders present problems in diagnosis and counseling. The variation in clinical findings within a family with an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia is presented. In some members only shortened metacarpals were found, as seen in classic brachydactyly E. Others presented with more severe and generalized skeletal involvement, such as is found in some of the spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias. This family may represent the true spectrum of brachydactyly E; they may be affected with a specific spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia; or they may represent a new syndrome. The authors favor the first possibility and feel that this family serves to emphasize the importance of examining all affected members in a kindred with an autosomal dominant disease.
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7/186. Kyphomelic dysplasia: a report of a family with an autosomal dominant pattern.

    Kyphomelic dysplasia (KD) is a rare autosomal recessive entity characterized by shortening and bowing of the limbs, skin dimples, abnormalities of methaphysis and ribs, a short trunk, a narrow thorax, neonatal respiratory distress, platyspondyly, and facial dysceptism with micrognathia, midfacial hypoplasia, and a broad nasal bridge. Some children die in early infancy. The survivors show normal hands, feet, cranium and psychomotor development. The condition varies in severity. The facial features and bowing improve during childhood, and stature remains short during adulthood. We report here a family with KD inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, which appears to be less severe than the autosomal recessive form, without facial and vertebral a favorable outcome and with involvement and final short stature.
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8/186. Lethal micromelic short-rib skeletal dysplasia with triangular-shaped humerus.

    We report two brothers with a new type of lethal, micromelic, short-rib, skeletal dysplasia characterised by short limbs with distinctive triangular-shaped humeri. This condition is most likely caused by either an autosomal recessive or X-linked recessive gene.
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9/186. IMAGe, a new clinical association of intrauterine growth retardation, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genital anomalies.

    We report three boys with adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) and additional findings that represent a new syndrome, IMAGe: Intrauterine growth retardation, Metaphyseal dysplasia, AHC, and Genital anomalies. Each presented shortly after birth with growth retardation and severe adrenal insufficiency. Each of the three patients had mild dysmorphic features, bilateral cryptorchidism, a small penis, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Skeletal surveys revealed metaphyseal dysplasia in all three and epiphyseal dysplasia in two. The patients had documented or suspected hypercalciuria and/or hypercalcemia, resulting in nephrocalcinosis in one and in prenatal liver and spleen calcifications in another. AHC presents most often either as an isolated abnormality, caused by mutations in the DAX1 gene, or as part of an Xp21 contiguous gene syndrome, caused by a deletion of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy, glycerol kinase, and DAX1 genes. All three patients with the IMAGe association had normal creatine kinase levels and no evidence of glycerol kinase deficiency. sequence analysis of dna from these patients revealed no mutation in the DAX1- or steroidogenic factor-1-coding sequences, nor was a deletion of DAX1 detected. Identification of the molecular basis of the IMAGe association will give new insight into the pathogenesis of this syndromic relationship involving bone, adrenal cortical, and pituitary development.
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10/186. recurrence of short rib polydactyly syndrome - a rare skeletal dysplasia.

    A case of short rib polydactyly syndrome type I-Saldino Noonan was diagnosed in three successive pregnancies from a non consanguineous couple. Short limbs, short ribs, polydactyly, with visceral anomalies were noted and confirmed on autopsy.
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