Cases reported "Bone Diseases, Metabolic"

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1/126. Osteopenia in the patient with cancer.

    Osteopenia is defined as a reduction in bone mass. It is commonly known to occur in elderly people or women who are postmenopausal due to hormonal imbalances. This condition, however, can result because of many other factors, such as poor nutrition, prolonged pharmacological intervention, disease, and decreased mobility. Because patients with cancer experience many of these factors, they are often predisposed to osteopenia. Currently, patients with cancer are living longer and leading more fulfilling lives after treatment. Therefore, it is imperative that therapists who are responsible for these patients understand the risk factors for osteopenia and their relevance to a patient with cancer.
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2/126. Effect of venesection on bone mineral density in an eugonadal woman with haemochromatosis.

    BACKGROUND: A 41-year-old premenopausal woman with newly diagnosed haemochromatosis was found to have osteopenia on screening bone mineral densitometry. methods AND RESULTS: liver biopsy showed grade 3 haemochromatosis with an hepatic iron index of 4. Investigation for secondary factors for osteopenia revealed no cause. The patient was clinically and biochemically eugonadal. Following venesection of 8 L blood (4 g iron) over 17 months and calcium supplementation, her bone density rose significantly. neck of femur bone density increased by 6.0% over 13 months and lumbar vertebral bone density increased by 7.2%. There are no previous reports of response of bone density to venesection in eugonadal patients or in women with haemochromatosis.
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3/126. Mesomelic dysplasia with periosteal thickening, radio-humeral dislocation, osteoporosis and multiple fractures.

    We report a boy with a new form of mesomelic dysplasia characterised by short stature, multifocal periosteal thickening, radio-humeral dislocation, osteoporosis and multiple fractures with minimal trauma. electrophoresis of fibroblast collagens detected defects in type III and type V collagen. CONCLUSION: Bone dysplasias presenting with osteopenia, abnormal trabecular pattern, bone fragility, and periosteal thickening suggest a collagenopathy. A possible collagen defect requires biochemical investigations.
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4/126. Prevention of premenstrual exacerbation of hereditary coproporphyria by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue.

    A 20-year-old Japanese female needed frequent hospitalization due to premenstrual exacerbation of hereditary coproporphyria (HCP). Intranasal buserelin acetate, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue, was given to suppress her menstrual cycles. Her porphyric symptoms subsided dramatically as she became amenorrhoeic. Urinary excretion of porphyrin derivatives fell significantly. She has been free from recurrent attacks, but suffers a minor porphyric attack once in 5 years. However, borderline osteopenia secondary to hypoestrogenism has been noted. Although these analogues are potent in suppressing estrogen-induced porphyric symptoms, due precautions should be taken to avoid bone demineralization in the long-term use.
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5/126. Otological findings in idiopathic hyperphosphatasia.

    A 17-year-old male patient was admitted because of progressive hearing loss since the age of six. His former blood and radiology investigation had revealed idiopathic hyperphosphatasia. On ENT examination bilateral thickened tympanic membranes with severe mixed-type hearing loss was diagnosed. Computerized tomography (CT) demonstrated expansion of the calvarial bones, including the temporal bones, except for the otic capsule. Middle-ear exploration revealed thickened middle-ear mucosa and a stone hard, immobile bony mass instead of the normal ossicular chain at the posterior superior part of the mesotympanum. No ossicular reconstruction could be attempted and the patient was rehabilitated with a hearing aid.
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6/126. The association between Turner's syndrome and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    BACKGROUND: Turner's syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal disease frequently associated with autoimmune conditions including thyroid disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and diabetes. Recent reports have described an association with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and psoriatic arthritis. We describe three additional cases of TS associated with JRA. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this report is to describe the radiographic and clinical features of TS associated with JRA to heighten awareness of this association and alert radiologists to recognize the superimposition of radiographic bony changes of chronic joint disease and the bone changes of TS. patients and methods. Clinical history and radiographic images of three girls with TS and arthritis were reviewed. The radiographic findings typical of TS and juvenile arthritis are described. RESULTS: Of about 65 patients at our center with Turner's syndrome 3 had JRA (as described in this report), supporting the association between TS and JRA. All our patients who met American College of rheumatology classification criteria for JRA had radiographic and clinical findings consistent with both their JRA and Turner's syndrome. CONCLUSION: We believe that it is important to consider the diagnosis of Turner's syndrome in girls with JRA, recognizing that characteristic radiographic findings such as metacarpal shortening are usually present. Conversely, suspicion of an underlying inflammatory arthritis is warranted in search for radiological findings consistent with JRA in girls with TS and joint symptoms.
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7/126. Fibrogenesis imperfecta ossium: imaging correlation in three new patients.

    OBJECTIVE: Fibrogenesis imperfecta ossium is an extremely rare disorder that can easily be misdiagnosed. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and imaging data of three confirmed cases of fibrogenesis imperfecta. DESIGN AND patients: The patients consisted of two men and one woman, ranging in age from 40 to 53 years. radiography was performed in all the patients. One patient had a 3-year follow-up of the thoracolumbar spine with conventional radiography and thoracolumbar magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Open biopsy was performed in all cases, confirming the diagnosis of fibrogenesis imperfecta ossium. RESULTS: All our cases demonstrated "fishnet" trabecular pattern by conventional radiographs, and a pelvis radiograph of one patient showed an equivocal sclerosis pattern. Multiple fractures were noted in two patients. A pseudoexostosis was present in the ilium in one patient. Thoracolumbar MR imaging demonstrated diffuse low signal intensity within the medullary space on both T1-weighed and T2-weighted images, except for a region of increased signal intensity in the L1 and L2 vertebral bodies on T2-weighed images due to edema from acute collapse. CONCLUSIONS: Although uncommon, fibrogenesis imperfecta ossium should be considered in a previously healthy patient with a combination of progressive bone pain, unexplained fractures, a radiologic pattern of fishnet osteopenia and MR imaging of low signal intensity bone marrow on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images.
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8/126. Aortic calcification contributing to bone densitometry measurement.

    A 75-yr-old glucocorticoid-dependent asthmatic male had a bone mineral density study to assess possible osteoporosis prior to initiating therapy. A radiograph of the lumbar spine revealed an asymmetrical compression of the second lumbar vertebra, marked scoliosis, vertebral osteopenia, and a highly calcified abdominal aorta. Bone mineral density (dual X-ray absolptiometry [DXA]) revealed low bone mass in L2-L4 and a markedly abnonrnal pattern, with a linear central density representing a calcified aorta. Posterior-anterior measurements of the midlumbar region with and without the overlying aorta indicated that the calcified vessel contributed up to 33% of the measured density. This was a far higher contribution than reported in other studies. Lateral DXA measurements of the L2 vertebra and the overlying aorta were performed to validate this finding. The density of the L2 vertebra was 0.215 g/cm(2), and that of the overlying calcified aorta was 0. 210 g/cm(2). This case suggests that aortic calcifications may contribute sign)ficantly to overall lumbar bone density and, unless recognized, can inadvertently lead to misclassification of osteoporosis.
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9/126. hip fracture and bone histomorphometry in a young adult with cystic fibrosis.

    A 25-yr-old male with cystic fibrosis sustained a fragility fracture of the left femoral neck, which required surgical correction. He had several risk factors for the development of low bone density and despite treatment with an oral bisphosphonate, his bone mineral density reduced further. The patient died 2 yrs after sustaining the fracture. Bone specimens obtained at post mortem demonstrated severe cortical and trabecular osteopenia, but the histological features were not typical of osteoporosis or osteomalacia. osteoporosis is thought to be a common complication of cystic fibrosis. The novel histomorphometric appearances reported here suggest that the bone disease of cystic fibrosis may be more complex and possibly unique. Labelled bone biopsies are required to clarify the bone defect leading to low bone density in cystic fibrosis patients so that appropriate therapeutic strategies can be developed.
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10/126. osteomalacia in a patient with severe anorexia nervosa.

    A 27-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa since adolescence was referred to our unit for generalized bone pain most severe at the pelvis and an inability to stand. She reported a pelvic fracture diagnosed one year earlier, which had failed to heal. Laboratory tests showed low serum phosphate, normal total serum calcium corrected for serum albumin, and very low urinary calcium excretion. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone levels were elevated, whereas 25-hydroxy-vitamin d was severely decreased. Multiple vertebral and rib fractures were seen on plain radiographs. Radiographic images consistent with osteomalacia were pseudofractures of the left inferior pubic ramus, a bilateral complete fracture of the superior pubic ramus, and a characteristic pseudofracture (Looser zone) in the lateral margin of the right scapula. Vitamin D-deficient osteomalacia with secondary hyperparathyroidism was strongly suspected at this point, but it was decided not to confirm this diagnosis by bone biopsy with histomorphometry and osteoid labeling because of the emotional instability of the patient. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry disclosed severe demineralization. After two months on calcium and vitamin d supplements, the bone pain had abated and the patient was able to stand. Serum calcium had increased; serum phosphate, 25-hydroxy-vitamin d, and parathyroid hormone had returned to normal, and the pseudofractures showed evidence of healing. osteoporosis is a well-known complication of anorexia nervosa. This case shows that osteomalacia can also occur. vitamin d status should be assessed in patients with long-standing severe anorexia nervosa.
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