Cases reported "Bone Diseases, Metabolic"

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1/30. Mesomelic dysplasia with periosteal thickening, radio-humeral dislocation, osteoporosis and multiple fractures.

    We report a boy with a new form of mesomelic dysplasia characterised by short stature, multifocal periosteal thickening, radio-humeral dislocation, osteoporosis and multiple fractures with minimal trauma. electrophoresis of fibroblast collagens detected defects in type III and type V collagen. CONCLUSION: Bone dysplasias presenting with osteopenia, abnormal trabecular pattern, bone fragility, and periosteal thickening suggest a collagenopathy. A possible collagen defect requires biochemical investigations.
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keywords = dysplasia, defect
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2/30. hip fracture and bone histomorphometry in a young adult with cystic fibrosis.

    A 25-yr-old male with cystic fibrosis sustained a fragility fracture of the left femoral neck, which required surgical correction. He had several risk factors for the development of low bone density and despite treatment with an oral bisphosphonate, his bone mineral density reduced further. The patient died 2 yrs after sustaining the fracture. Bone specimens obtained at post mortem demonstrated severe cortical and trabecular osteopenia, but the histological features were not typical of osteoporosis or osteomalacia. osteoporosis is thought to be a common complication of cystic fibrosis. The novel histomorphometric appearances reported here suggest that the bone disease of cystic fibrosis may be more complex and possibly unique. Labelled bone biopsies are required to clarify the bone defect leading to low bone density in cystic fibrosis patients so that appropriate therapeutic strategies can be developed.
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ranking = 0.0010691142018828
keywords = defect
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3/30. McCune-Albright syndrome associated with non-autoimmune type of hyperthyroidism with development of thyrotoxic crisis.

    We report on a patient having McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) associated with non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism associated with thyrotoxic crisis. Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia developed at age 8, and cafe-au-lait pigmentation was noted on the skin. At age 18, he developed hyperthyroidism with multiple adenomatous changes. The hyperthyroidism had been controlled with an antithyroid drug, but the antithyroid medication was discontinued by the patient at age 23. One year later, thyrotoxic crisis developed with fever, convulsions and loss of consciousness. thyroid function tests showed serum concentrations of free T(4) of 5.1 ng/dl, and serum TSH of <0.1 microU/ml. serum thyroglobulin concentrations were markedly increased (1,280 ng/ml). Three major thyroid-related autoantibodies (TSH receptor antibody, antithyroglobulin, and antimicrosomal antibodies) were not detected in serum. serum GH concentrations were increased, and not suppressed by the glucose tolerance test, but increased paradoxically by TRH. The thyrotoxic crisis was ameliorated by treatment with a beta-adrenergic receptor-blocking agent, glucocoroticoid, iodine, antithyroid drug, and antibiotics. The cause of thyroidal defect in our patient is not considered to be autoimmune hyperthyroidism, but hyperthyroidism due to constitutive activation of G(s)alpha by inhibition of its GTPase. This paper describes, as far as we know, the first case of MAS associated with thyrotoxic crisis. Because hyperthyroidism in this patient recurred quickly after discontinuation of the antithyroid drug, the mode of treatment for MAS-associated hyperthyroidism appears to be total surgical ablation or repetitive radioiodine therapy.
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ranking = 0.16737940946792
keywords = dysplasia, defect
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4/30. Malignant hypophosphathaemic bone disease.

    A case of crippling osteoporosis with muscular weakness, hypophosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, defective skeletal calcification and cartilage destruction is reported. The patient, a male was observed from the age of 2 1/2 until his death at the age of 33 years. This bone/cartilage disease failed to respond to phosphate supplementation, parathyroidectomy and calcitriol. We believe this may represent a hitherto undescribed entity.
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ranking = 0.0010691142018828
keywords = defect
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5/30. carney complex--an unexpected finding during puerperium.

    carney complex is an extremely rare, autosomal dominant, multi-system disorder characterized by multiple neoplasias and lentiginosis. The genetic defect responsible for this complex has been localized to the short arm of chromosome 2 (2p16). The most prevalent clinical manifestations in patients with carney complex are spotty skin pigmentation, skin and cardiac myxomas, Cushing's syndrome and acromegaly. Here we report the case of a 31-year-old woman with a spontaneous pregnancy. At 32 weeks of gestation, she was admitted to our Department of obstetrics with hypertension and severe back pain. In addition, she had unusual pigmentation and typical cushingoid features. One day after admission, the pregnancy was terminated by emergency cesarian section because of preeclampsia and pathological CTG. During the postoperative period the severe back pain persisted, and radiographic evaluation revealed a collapse of L(2)/L(3) with severe osteopenia. A CT scan showed a mass in the right suprarenal area. Histopathological examination revealed a primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease. After biochemical confirmation of the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome, it was recognized that the patient met the diagnostic criteria for carney complex.
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ranking = 0.0010691142018828
keywords = defect
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6/30. Severe cleidocranial dysplasia can mimic hypophosphatasia.

    cleidocranial dysplasia (OMIM 119600) is a skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in the bone/cartilage specific osteoblast transcription factor RUNX2 gene. It is characterised by macrocephaly with persistently open sutures, absent or hypoplastic clavicles, dental anomalies, and delayed ossification of the pubic bones. A few patients have been reported with recurrent fractures or osteoporosis but these are not considered features of the disease. We report a patient with classical findings of cleidocranial dysplasia: markedly hypoplastic clavicles, delayed ossification of the pubic rami, multiple pseudoepiphyses of the metacarpals, and dental anomalies including delayed eruption of permanent dentition and multiple supernumerary teeth. The patient also had radiographic and biochemical features of hypophosphatasia (OMIM 241500, 146300) and was initially diagnosed with this condition. serum alkaline phosphatase activity has been consistently reduced and specific enzyme substrates, phosphoethanolamine and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, have been elevated. However, no mutations were found on direct sequencing of the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase ( TNSALP) gene using a protocol that detects up to 94% of all mutations causing hypophosphatasia. CONCLUSION: We propose that a subset of patients with cleidocranial dysplasia have features of secondary hypophosphatasia due to decreased expression of the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene.
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ranking = 1.3304823621283
keywords = dysplasia
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7/30. An unusual case of ovarian resistance syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: women who present with elevated gonadotropins, primary amenorrhea, and sexual infantilism usually have an abnormal karyotype or premature ovarian failure. We describe a rare case of ovarian resistance secondary to a gonadotropin post-receptor defect. CASE: An 18-year-old presented with amenorrhea and sexual infantilism. Original workup led physicians to believe the patient had uterine agenesis with premature ovarian failure. Ovarian biopsy proved the presence of follicles. After 48 months on hormone replacement, the patient went through the stages of puberty, including menarche. Re-evaluation proved the presence of a uterus. CONCLUSION: Ovarian resistance is a rare cause of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. With this type of ovarian dysfunction, women present early in life with amenorrhea, elevated gonadotropins, and normal karyotypes.
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ranking = 0.0010691142018828
keywords = defect
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8/30. A novel developmental and immunodeficiency syndrome associated with intrauterine growth retardation and a lack of natural killer cells.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel syndrome characterized by severe prenatal and postnatal growth failure, mild skeletal and facial abnormalities, and primary immunodeficiency. DESIGN: The syndrome was observed in 2 sisters. The elder child died of cytomegalovirus infection when she was 18 months old, whereas the younger sister is doing well at 5 years old. We report here clinical, hematologic, and immunologic data for both sisters and compare them with all known inherited disorders with similar clinical or immunologic features. RESULTS: The immune defect consists of a lack of detectable natural killer cells and small numbers of CD8 alphabeta T cells and polymorphonuclear neutrophils. This is the first report of prenatal and postnatal growth failure associated with mild skeletal and facial abnormalities and primary immunodeficiency. CONCLUSION: This novel syndrome probably is caused by an autosomal recessive gene defect impairing both intrauterine growth and natural killer cell development. The identification of other kindreds with this syndrome would facilitate the search for its genetic basis.
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ranking = 0.0021382284037655
keywords = defect
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9/30. hypertelorism, ptosis, and myopia associated with drug-resistant epilepsy, mental delay, growth deficiency, ectodermal defects, and osteopenia.

    We report a 30-year-old woman with hypertelorism, ptosis, and myopia associated with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome), mental delay, growth deficiency, ectodermal defects, and osteopenia. To the best of our knowledge, this patient has an unusual combination of symptoms not previously described, associated with severe central nervous system dysfunction. The ectodermal defects were present in a very intriguing form, were difficult to diagnose, and did not conform to any classification or previous description.
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ranking = 312.51717475372
keywords = ectodermal defect, defect
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10/30. A boy with Japanese Dent's disease exhibiting abnormal calcium metabolism and osseous disorder of the spine: defective megalin expression at the brushborder of renal proximal tubules.

    We encountered a 16-year-old boy with Japanese Dent's disease who exhibited renal insufficiency and an osseous disorder of the spine. proteinuria first was noted at the age of 2 years. At 13 years, the patient underwent analysis of the CLCN5 gene, which identified missense mutation (I524K) in exon 10. During follow-up, a marked increase in urinary beta2-microglobulin was associated with mild deterioration of renal function. At the age of 15 years, hypocalcemia (7.5 mg/dl) accompanied by an increased plasma concentration of alkaline phosphatase was first detected. At that time, plasma concentration of 25(OH)D3 and 1'alpha25(OH)2D3 were low accompanied by a high plasma parathyroid hormone concentration. A renal biopsy specimen revealed tubulointerstitial alterations including mononuclear cell infiltration, partial fibrosis and focal glomerular sclerosis. Immunofluorescence revealed weak, discontinuous staining of megalin along the brushborder of renal proximal tubules. Western blotting demonstrated decreased urinary excretion of megalin. Thus, clinical manifestations and prognosis may vary in Japanese Dent's disease. Reduced megalin expression may have disturbed calcium homeostasis, leading to osseous disorder in our patient.
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ranking = 0.004276456807531
keywords = defect
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