Cases reported "Bone Malalignment"

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1/26. Salvage of contaminated fractures of the distal humerus with thin wire external fixation.

    Fractures and osteotomies of the distal humerus that are contaminated or infected represent a difficult management problem. Stable anatomic fixation with plates and screws, the acknowledged key to a good result in the treatment of bicondylar fractures, may be unwise. A thin wire circular (Ilizarov) external fixator was used as salvage treatment in such complex situations in five patients. The fixator allowed functional mobilization of the elbow while allowing achievement of the primary goal of eradicating the infection or colonization. Two patients required a second operation for fixation of a fibrous union of the lateral condyle. One patient with a vascularized fibular graft later required triple plate fixation for malalignment at the distal host and graft junction. Four of five patients ultimately achieved complete union. The fracture remained ununited in one patient who has declined additional intervention. All five patients achieved at least 85 degrees ulnohumeral motion, two after a secondary elbow capsulectomy performed after healing was achieved. This experience suggested that the Ilizarov construct, although not a panacea, represents a reliable method of skeletal stabilization that allows functional mobilization while elimination of infection or colonization is ensured. If necessary, stiffness and incomplete healing can be addressed with an increased margin of safety at subsequent operations. ( info)

2/26. A new technique for determining proper mechanical axis alignment during total knee arthroplasty: progress toward computer-assisted TKA.

    Successful total knee arthroplasty (TKA) relies on proper positioning of prosthetic components to restore the mechanical axis of the lower extremity. This report presents and analyzes a new noninvasive method using the Optotrack (Northern Digital Inc, ontario, canada) to accurately determine the center of the femoral head. This method, together with direct digitization of the bony landmarks of the knee and ankle intraoperatively, permits placement of the lower extremity in proper alignment intraoperatively. It also permits the surgeon to follow all the angles of movement or rotation and all displacements that occur at each step of the operative procedure. knee intraoperatively via a customized Windows-based program. In addition to presenting our first case, which, importantly, represents the first computer-assisted TKA in a patient, we report on the accuracy and reproducibility of the technique for locating the center of the femoral head obtained during an extensive series of cadaver studies. Location of the femoral head, a major aspect of effecting neutral mechanical axis alignment, appears to be possible to within 2-4 mm, which corresponds to an angular accuracy of better than 1 degree. This method requires no computed tomography scans or other preliminary marker placement. The only basic requirement other than the instrumentation described is a freely mobile hip, which is generally present in TKA patients. ( info)

3/26. Definition, quantification, and correction of translation deformities using long leg, frontal plane radiography.

    The surgical realignment of mechanical axis deviation is necessary to prevent early joint degeneration. Modern types of external fixation systems allow alignment of the mechanical axis to exact degrees. Predominately, these are corrections of angulation deformities. In some cases, the analysis of the mechanical axis deviation does not show any angulation deformity, but rather a parallel staggering of the mechanical axis lines of a bone. Such parallel staggering of the mechanical axis lines is defined as a translation deformity of the bone. In combined deformities with angulation and translation, the center of deformity can be established proximal or distal to the limit of the bone. In translation deformities, the realignment of the mechanical axis requires a parallel restaggering made by a translation-osteotomy or by a counterangulated double osteotomy. In complex deformities with angulation and translation, the translation requires separate corrective planning. In frontal plane radiographs of the standing leg, the components of angulation and translation can be established graphically or by simple trigonometric formulas. The analysis and surgical procedure to realign translation deformities or a combination of translation and angulation deformities using an unilateral fixator device are discussed. ( info)

4/26. Preoperative planning in deformity correction and limb lengthening surgery.

    A simple method of preoperative planning in deformity correction and limb lengthening surgery is described and illustrated with two cases of deformity associated with length discrepancy. Frontal and lateral radiographs allow defining a deformity in its actual plane. Tracings are made, axes are marked, and the deformity is analyzed graphically. A problem list is created on a worksheet. The osteotomies are made with scissors on the worksheet and the segments are angulated into position to test the correction. The method of fixation is selected and the patient seen preoperatively to address issues to be encountered during the correction. ( info)

5/26. magnetic resonance imaging of growth plate injuries: the efficacy and indications for surgical procedures.

    In 23 patients with growth plate injuries, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed a total of 31 times to evaluate the physis which showed plain radiographic evidence of possible damage. Fourteen patients clinically showed growth arrest, and 10 patients required a Langenskiold operation. In 3 patients who underwent this operation, subsequent premature total fusion of the physis adversely affected the postoperative results. We propose that the merging shape of the arrest line with calcification of the provisional zone of the metaphysis shown by MRI indicates poor viability of the physis. MRI provided useful information on the appearance of the growth plate and changes in the metaphysis, both of which affected the prognosis and the results of the surgical procedures. ( info)

6/26. Fracture of the proximal tibia six months after Fulkerson osteotomy. A report of two cases.

    The Fulkerson osteotomy has proved to be a reliable treatment for subluxation of the patella due to malalignment. Aggressive rehabilitation in the early postoperative period is unwise since the proximal tibia is weakened by the oblique osteotomy. Early weight-bearing and unrestricted activity have caused fractures in a few patients. Even late in the postoperative period the osteotomy may adversely influence the biomechanical properties of the proximal tibia. We describe two athletes who sustained a fracture of the proximal tibia, during recreational activities, six months after a Fulkerson osteotomy. Both had been bearing full weight for about ten weeks without complaint. Bony healing of the osteotomy had been demonstrated on plain radiographs at ten and at 12 weeks. After a Fulkerson osteotomy, jogging and activities which impose considerable impact force should be discouraged for at least nine to 12 months. ( info)

7/26. Distraction of hypertrophic nonunion of tibia with deformity using Ilizarov/Taylor Spatial Frame. Report of two cases.

    Two cases of hypertrophic nonunion of the tibia with deformity for which distraction treatment using an Ilizarov/Taylor Spatial Frame (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN) are presented. This frame utilizes a computer program to help plan correction of the deformity. ( info)

8/26. Malrotation after locked intramedullary tibial nailing: three case reports and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: Malrotation after interlocked tibial nailing is rarely documented. methods: We report the cases of three patients who incurred symptomatic rotational deformities after closed intramedullary nailing for low-energy spiral fractures of the distal third of the tibia. RESULTS: Two patients elected surgical correction, with excellent clinical results. CONCLUSION: Malrotation may cause functional deficits, but the long-term consequences of rotational deformities in the tibia have not been thoroughly studied. Malrotation after tibial nailing is probably more common than reported. Intraoperative comparison with the uninjured leg may be the best means available for avoiding this postoperative complication. ( info)

9/26. Coronal fractures of the proximal scaphoid: the proximal ring sign.

    We present two coronal fractures of the proximal scaphoid which were both missed in the acute stage as interpretation of initial radiographs was difficult. In both cases, recognition of the so-called "Proximal Ring Sign" on the PA ulnar deviation radiographs may have helped diagnosis. CT scans were necessary to fully demonstrate the fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation, performed 2 and 4 months after the injury, resulted in union in both cases. ( info)

10/26. Osteoporotic vertebral fracture adjacent to a nonsegmented hemivertebra.

    A combination of osteoporotic vertebral fractures and congenital spinal deformity is theoretically possible, but there have been no reports on this combination in the literature. We describe a rare case of an osteoporotic vertebral fracture adjacent to the nonsegmented hemivertebra. A 60-year-old postmenopausal woman who did not recall any specific trauma presented with severe back pain. She had markedly decreased bone mineral density and significant lumbar kyphoscoliosis with a nonsegmented hemivertebra between L1 and L2 on radiographs of the lumbar spine. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a vertebral fracture adjacent to the nonsegmented hemivertebra. Laboratory studies showed increased serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and urinary type I collagen crosslinked N-telopeptide (NTx). A thoracolumbar brace was applied for 3 months. Daily administration of alendronate normalized her serum BAP and urinary NTx levels. MRI scans of the lumbar spine after 6 months also confirmed normalized signal intensities of the fractured vertebra adjacent to the nonsegmented hemivertebra. The vertebral fracture seemed to be induced by spinal malalignment, increased stress on the adjacent level of the fused segment, and its fragility due to osteoporosis. ( info)
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