Cases reported "Bone Marrow Diseases"

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1/339. kearns-sayre syndrome with features of Pearson's marrow-pancreas syndrome and a novel 2905-base pair mitochondrial dna deletion.

    kearns-sayre syndrome (KSS) and Pearson's marrow-pancreas syndrome (PMPS) are rare disorders caused by the same molecular defect, one of several deletion mutations in mitochondrial dna (mtDNA). KSS is an encephalomyopathy with ophthalmoplegia, retinal degeneration, ataxia, and endocrine abnormalities. PMPS is a disorder of childhood characterized by refractory anemia, vacuolization of bone marrow cells, and exocrine pancreas dysfunction. Children with PMPS that have a mild phenotype, or are supported through bone marrow failure, often develop the encephalomyopathic features of KSS. The subject of numerous reports in the neuromuscular, genetic, and pediatric literature in recent years, very few cases of either disorder have ever been studied at autopsy. We report the results of our studies of a patient with clinically documented KSS who presented with renal dysfunction and was found to have a novel mtDNA deletion and degenerative changes in the central nervous system, retina, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. ( info)

2/339. Toxic epidermal necrolysis and graft vs. host disease: a clinical spectrum but a diagnostic dilemma.

    We describe a 53-year-old man who developed partial and full thickness skin loss associated with pyrexia, diarrhoea, liver, renal and bone marrow failure, during treatment for an aggressive B cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. The clinical features and histology were compatible with both toxic epidermal necrolysis and graft vs. host disease, causing a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. We discuss the possibility that methotrexate was the causative drug, with review of its cutaneous side-effects. Histologically our patient demonstrated the sparse dermal infiltrate with full thickness epidermal necrosis typical of toxic epidermal necrolysis and graft vs. host disease. We discuss this finding with respect to the pathogenesis of toxic epidermal necrolysis. ( info)

3/339. pregnancy in bone marrow failure syndromes: diamond-Blackfan anaemia and Shwachman-diamond syndrome.

    pregnancy in bone marrow failure syndromes has risk to mother and fetus. There are fewer than 30 reports of cases with diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA), and none with Shwachman-diamond syndrome (SD). We report two DBA and one SD cases. One DBA mother received transfusions intra-partum, and the other only post-partum. Both required caesarean sections (C-sections) for failure of labour to progress and severe pre-eclampsia respectively. Both subsequently resumed pre-pregnancy steroid-induced control of anaemia. approximately 40% of DBA pregnancies required maternal transfusions; 25% delivered by C-section. The SD patient also had Ehlers-Danlos (ED) syndrome and urticaria pigmentosa (UP). Her blood counts were adequate until week 38, when the platelet count dropped and a C-section was performed. pregnancy management in marrow failure disorders requires obstetricians with expertise in high-risk pregnancies, and haematologists with experience with marrow failure syndromes. ( info)

4/339. HHV-6-related secondary graft failure following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    We report the case of an 11-year-old boy who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Despite adequate engraftment, on day 45 he developed marrow aplasia with haemophagocytosis. HHV-6 was detected in blood and bone marrow by nested PCR. Retrospective testing showed that viraemia had started on day 24. Following therapy with foscarnet and ganciclovir, viral load declined to undetectable levels and his donor marrow recovered contemporaneously. This case suggests that HHV-6 may be a treatable cause of graft failure following BMT and provides clinical and virological evidence for the anti-HHV-6 activity of ganciclovir and foscarnet. ( info)

5/339. Unwanted corticosteroid effects in childhood bone marrow failure, renal failure and brain damage: case report.

    The case report of the corticosteroid complication in an eight-year-old girl with immune thrombocytopenic purpura is presented. She was treated with high dosage corticosteroids and incurred severe side effects, including bone marrow depression, renal magnesium stones, osteoporosis, depression of affect, convulsions with cerebral damage and adrenal suppression. ( info)

6/339. Shwachman-diamond syndrome: early bone marrow transplantation in a high risk patient and new clues to pathogenesis.

    Shwachman-diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by exocrine pancreas insufficiency, metaphyseal dysostosis and bone marrow dysfunction. Recurrent severe bacterial infections and susceptibility to leukaemia are the major causes of morbidity and mortality occurring preferentially in patients with pancytopenia and features of myelodysplasia. Here we report a patient with SDS leading to recurrent bacterial infections and a deteriorating condition since early infancy. Extensive investigations disclosed severe pancytopenia, myelodysplasia and a clonal cytogenetic abnormality, inv(14)(q11q32), as risk factors of leukaemic transformation. He therefore underwent allogeneic geno-identical bone marrow transplantation which resulted in correction of all haematological and immunological abnormalities within an 18-month follow up period.Conclusion bone marrow transplantation may be considered early as a valuable treatment option especially in high risk Schwachman-diamond syndrome patients anticipating malignant transformation, life-threatening severe infections or further organ damage. ( info)

7/339. diagnosis and treatment of an unusual cause of metabolic acidosis: ethylene glycol poisoning.

    ethylene glycol intoxication is a rare but dangerous type of poisoning. It causes a severe acidosis with high anion and osmolal gaps. Clinical manifestations of the ethylene glycol intoxication can be divided in three phases: a neurologic stage, with hallucinations, stupor and coma; the second stage is cardiovascular with cardiac failure. Renal failure characterizes the third stage, due to acute tubular necrosis. After aggressive gastric emptying, the main treatment is ethanol or 4-methypyrazole, which can be given either orally or intravenous, with supportive measures for all symptoms or diseased organ. ( info)

8/339. Erythroleukemia-like syndrome due to busulfan toxicity in polycythemia vera.

    Over a 19-year period, a patient with polycythemia vera who had undergone a splenectomy received six courses of busulfan for recurrent thrombocytosis. The total dose of busulfan given for the sixth course was greater than that used for the previous ones. Severe pancytopenia followed, which persisted for 4 months. During this period there was marked erythroid hyperplasia in the bone marrow with striking dyserythropoiesis; PAS-positive red cell precursors, as well as moderate numbers of circulating normoblasts and evidence of chronic and acute hemolysis, were present. All of these findings reverted to normal without therapy, and the polycythemic state eventually recurred. These events are interpreted as an unusual marrow reaction following busulfan overdosage rather than a transient erythroleukemia. ( info)

9/339. Thorotrast-induced haemangioendothelial sarcoma--a lesson from the past.

    Complications following a carotid arteriogram done in 1947 with Thorotrast are described in a 47-year-old man who subsequently died from them in 1970. They included a local cervical granuloma with associated haemangioendothelial sarcoma, chromosome changes characteristic of radiation damage and widespread haemangioendothelial sarcomatous deposits in brain, lung, liver, probably arising from multicentric primary sites in the bone marrow. A survey of the use of Thorotrast as a contrast medium in australia and new zealand showed that its use was extremely limited. The prinicpal complications seen have been two cervical granulomas and one hepatoma. ( info)

10/339. One antigen mismatched related donor bone marrow transplant in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and beta-thalassaemia major: potential cure of both marrow disorders.

    We report a case of a 34-year-old man with T-ALL and beta-thalassaemia major who underwent a one antigen mismatched related donor bone marrow transplant. Five months post transplant chimeric studies revealed full donor haemopoiesis and the patient remains leukaemia and thalassaemia free at 12 months post transplant. Cumulative risk factors contributing to the increased transplant-related mortality in patients with two different marrow disorders are discussed. ( info)
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