Cases reported "Bone Marrow Neoplasms"

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1/142. diagnosis of disseminated alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma using cytogenetics: case report.

    The clinical, histologic and cytogenetic features of a patient with the alveolar subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) were investigated. The patient presented with a widely disseminated tumour including bone marrow involvement, and was a diagnostic dilemma. The presence of translocation (2;13)(q37;q14), which is strongly associated with alveolar RMS helped make the diagnosis. A review of other published cases confirms the strong association of (2;13) with alveolar RMS. The importance of considering RMS as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with disseminated tumour as the only finding is stressed. This case also shows how cytogenetic investigation of similar patients may provide a diagnosis. ( info)

2/142. The blastic variant of mantle cell lymphoma arising in Waldeyer's tonsillar ring.

    We present three cases of blastic mantle cell lymphoma with an unusual initial manifestation in Waldeyer's ring with methods for differentiating it from other blastic neoplasms of the head and neck. All cases presented with a feeling of fullness in the area of the mass. Morphologically, the tumours were blastic with a high mitotic rate (three to nine per high power field). All were B-cell phenotype with coexpression of CD43. In all cases cyclin d1 and bcl-2 were positive and CD23 negative. Blastic mantle cell lymphoma occurring in Waldeyer's tonsillar ring may be mistaken for other high grade haematopoietic neoplasms. immunohistochemistry and awareness of this type of lymphoma are helpful in differentiating it from other neoplasms. ( info)

3/142. Nasal and nasal-type T/NK-cell lymphoma with cutaneous involvement.

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a third lymphocyte lineage, in addition to B- and T-cells, that mediate cytotoxicity without prior sensitization. NK cells also have phenotypic and genotypic characteristics; they express the NK-related antigen CD56 and T-cell markers such as CD2 and CD3 epsilon, but their T-cell receptor (TCR) locus is not rearranged. Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are divided into B- and T-cell neoplasms and NK-cell lymphomas. We describe 2 Japanese patients with nasal and nasal-type T/NK-cell lymphoma in which the skin, nasal/nasopharyngeal region, bone marrow, and lymph node were the sites of involvement. The clinical and histopathologic findings were recorded. In addition, immunophenotyping, TCR gene rearrangement, and the existence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) dna by polymerase chain reaction amplification were determined. Clinically, the cutaneous eruptions were purplish, hard, multiple nodules. Histologically, angiocentric proliferation of small-to medium-sized, pleomorphic, lymphoid cells were observed. They revealed hand-mirror-shaped lymphocytes with azurophilic granules with the use of Giemsa staining by touch smear. These lymphocytes were found to be positive to immunophenotyping for CD2 (Leu5b), CD3 epsilon (DAKO), CD4 (Leu3a), and CD56 (Leu 19). No clonal rearrangement of TCR-beta, -gamma, and -delta genes and immunoglobulin gene markers were found, and no positive results of identification of EBV dna were shown. The patients underwent cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy with complete remission; however, both had recurrence of disease. Because NK-cell lymphomas express some T-cell markers, they may be mistakenly diagnosed as peripheral T-cell lymphomas if they are not investigated for the NK-cell-specific marker, CD56. Therefore the importance of immunophenotypic investigations of CD56 should be stressed. Also, the importance of clinical investigation of nasal/nasopharyngeal lymphomas should be stressed when NK-cell lymphoma is diagnosed involving the skin, because NK-cell lymphomas are often associated with the nasal and nasopharyngeal region. ( info)

4/142. bone marrow relapse in primary mucinous carcinoma of skin.

    Primary mucinous carcinoma of skin is a rare adnexal tumor arising from the eccrine sweat gland. The tumors grow slowly and have low rates of local recurrence and rare chances of distant metastasis. The authors report a 70-year-old man with primary mucinous skin carcinoma who had a relapse in bone marrow 19 months after initial treatment. ( info)

5/142. Computed tomography guidance in bone marrow aspiration for diagnosis of marrow necrosis and metastasis.

    bone marrow necrosis is most frequently diagnosed at postmortem examination. Antemortem diagnosis is still uncommon. We illustrate four cases where initial bedside attempts at needle aspiration and biopsy of primary and metastatic tumor tissue from the sternum were complicated by inadequate specimen retrieval secondary to marrow necrosis and/or tissue destruction by tumor. In these cases, CT guidance was useful in the precise localization of the bulk of the tissue mass and consequently the successful retrieval of adequate diagnostic specimens. We demonstrate CT guidance as an excellent and convenient alternative in circumstances where adequate marrow aspirations and biopsies are difficult and complicated. ( info)

6/142. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with breast cancer: a case report and review of the current literature.

    The association of solid tumors with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is rare. Before this study, there have been three case reports indicating an association between breast cancer and ITP. We present a 69-year-old man with metastatic breast cancer and progressive thrombocytopenia without any evidence of a leukoerythroblastic picture or etiologies for the thrombocytopenia. serum platelet antibodies were identified. A bone marrow biopsy showed small foci of metastatic breast cancer, thrombocytopenia, and normal number of megakaryocytes. A subsequent trial of steroids resulted in a marked improvement of the patient's thrombocytopenia. This is the fourth case report indicating an association of breast cancer and ITP. ( info)

7/142. Circulating retinoblastoma cells in a patient with metastatic disease.

    We report an unusual case of a two-year-old girl with metastatic retinoblastoma and massive bone marrow involvement who showed the overt presence of circulating retinoblastoma cells in peripheral blood smears a few days before death. This extended disease developed after an early relapse that followed abandoned primary chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports about the presence of circulating retinoblastoma cells in peripheral blood films. We conclude that the search for bone marrow invasion in patients with disseminated retinoblastoma should be exhaustive to achieve an accurate staging assessment. Peripheral blood smears should be examined cautiously to detect occasional circulating retinoblastoma cells when the bone marrow is massively involved. ( info)

8/142. Testicular lymphoma with bone/bone marrow metastases illustrated by scrotal sonography, spinal MRI, and total body Tc-99m HMDP and Tc-99m MIBI images.

    An 83-year-old man with testicular lymphoma demonstrated progressive scrotal enlargement with non-homogeneity sonographically and abnormally increased uptake in the scrotum of Tc-99m HMDP and Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphically. Extensive bone/bone marrow metastases were exhibited by Tc-99m MIBI and Tc-99m HMDP scintigraphies and MRI of the spine. In addition, focal/tubular activity of the femoral bone marrow on Tc-99m MIBI imaging was consistent with skeletal scintigraphic findings. It is emphasized that Tc-99m MIBI total body imaging enabled the demonstration of testicular lymphoma as increased uptake and the illustration of skeletal/bone marrow metastases as diffuse and/or focal increased uptake, especially focal/tubular MIBI activity of the femoral marrow. ( info)

9/142. Sub-super bone scan caused by bone marrow involvement of prostate cancer.

    A 67-year-old man presented with malaise and marked anemia. A diagnostic workup revealed severe pancytopenia on a complete blood count and diffuse sclerotic change in the axial skeleton on a plain abdominal radiograph. Bone metastases being suspected from these findings, bone scintigraphy was performed. The bone scan demonstrated uniformly increased skeletal activity with faint soft-tissue activity. The findings of the bone scan, however, appeared atypical of the super scan caused by diffuse bone metastases, without any decrease in radioactivities of the appendicular skeleton and kidneys. bone marrow scintigraphy with In-111 chloride demonstrated central marrow failure and peripheral expansion, which indicated the possibility of myelophthisis. The patient underwent bone marrow biopsy, which revealed replacement of the bone marrow by metastatic adenocarcinoma. Further examinations detected the primary lesion in the prostate. In this case, the findings of the bone scan were insufficient for the super scan, and might be categorized as a sub-super scan. It would be important to recognize this incomplete form of super scan as a rare scintigraphic pattern of diffuse bone marrow metastases. ( info)

10/142. Hypotetraploidy in a patient with small cell carcinoma.

    While numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities characterize many hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic malignancies, the occurrence of polyploidy is by and large rare. We report here an interesting patient with small cell carcinoma (SCC) and hypotetraploidy initially referred to us because of a question of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, M3 subtype, with a question of a 15;17 translocation characteristic of acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, the patient did not have a 15;17 translocation and the final hematopathologic analysis of the bone marrow aspirates and immunohistochemistry studies subsequently revealed the patient to have SCC. Small cell carcinoma is a highly malignant and a very aggressive neoplasm. A review of the literature, using medline, Cancerlit, and the science Citation Index, revealed that in most, if not all, reports, the presence of polyploidy is noted as a rare entity. In leukemia, reports of polyploidy point to a distinct category of patients with a poor risk for which more intensive treatment is needed. Limited information is currently available to assess the risk of polyploidy in small cell carcinoma. Our case is important not only because of the relative rarity of polyploidy, but also because insights gained from the study of this and other similar patients may help shed additional light on the mechanism of carcinogenesis, which is not fully known to date. As polyploidization is a manifestation of genetic instability and as genetic instability has been implicated in the genesis and progression of many cancers, it is perhaps not too surprising that polyploidy in our case was associated with a poor disease outcome. The patient has since expired. ( info)
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