Cases reported "Bone Neoplasms"

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1/245. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment of primary bone sarcoma of the pelvis.

    BACKGROUND: Symptoms arising from primary bone sarcoma of the pelvic girdle are often insidious in onset and nonspecific in nature. To make the subtle initial signs and symptoms of these tumors more apparent to clinicians, we studied a cohort of patients who had a primary bone sarcoma of the pelvic girdle. Our purpose was to describe the initial clinical findings and to evaluate the duration, frequency, and implications of delays in the treatment of these tumors. methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data on sixty-eight patients who had a primary bone sarcoma of the pelvic girdle. The data that we reviewed included demographic characteristics; histological diagnosis; anatomical location, size, and stage of the tumor; characteristics of the biopsy specimen; duration and description of symptoms before an accurate diagnosis was made; delay before recognition of the tumor on radiographs; results of diagnostic imaging; inaccurate diagnoses; type of intervention based on these inaccurate diagnoses; and outcome with regard to survival. There were forty high-grade sarcomas and twenty-eight low-grade sarcomas. RESULTS: Excluding two asymptomatic patients in whom the sarcoma was noted incidentally, the average duration of symptoms before an accurate diagnosis was made was ten months (median, six months; range, one month to four years). Common symptoms and findings on physical examination included pain in the buttock (twenty-three patients; 35 percent), a mass (twenty patients; 30 percent), sciatica (nineteen patients; 29 percent), pain in the hip (seventeen patients; 26 percent), pain in the groin (thirteen patients; 20 percent), and low-back pain (fourteen patients; 21 percent). In thirty (44 percent) of the sixty-eight patients, the pelvic sarcoma was not recognized initially and an inaccurate diagnosis was made. The misdiagnoses included a herniated lumbar disc, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, tendinitis, bursitis, an inguinal hernia, a stress fracture, a pilonidal cyst, a recurrent urinary-tract infection, and degenerative arthritis of the spine, hip, and knee. Inappropriate treatment for these misdiagnoses included seven operative procedures (two laminectomies, two debridements, one hip arthrotomy, one total knee replacement, and one inguinal herniorrhaphy), six courses of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, five chiropractic adjustments, four trials of physical therapy, and three local injections of steroids. It took an average of seven months for the clinicians to arrive at the diagnosis of primary pelvic sarcoma. With the numbers available, no significant association between the duration of symptoms before an accurate diagnosis was made and the grade or the stage of the tumor could be detected. In addition, no association between the duration of symptoms and the survival of the patient (p = 0.54) could be determined, with univariate analysis. The grade and the stage of the tumor were strongly associated with the outcome, with a low tumor grade proving to be a favorable prognostic indicator for survival (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: patients who have a primary bone sarcoma of the pelvis often have had symptoms for a long duration that mimic those of more commonly encountered non-neoplastic musculoskeletal conditions. When a patient has symptoms that appear to be out of the ordinary, particularly refractory pain or pain at rest, physicians should include the pelvic girdle in the evaluation and should carefully examine a high-quality radiograph of the entire pelvis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fracture, stress fracture
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2/245. Pathological fracture in non-ossifying fibroma with histological features simulating aneurysmal bone cyst.

    A 12-year-old-girl presented with a fracture of an osteolytic lesion of the distal radius. A 7-year-old girl presented with a fracture of an osteolytic lesion of the femoral shaft. In both cases it was a non-ossifying fibroma with fracture misdiagnosed at pathology as aneurysmal bone cyst. Fractures through non-ossifying fibromas may alter the histological pattern of the initial lesion in two ways: firstly, by the presence of blood pigments due to the fracture, and secondly, by formation of new bone. Radiological-pathological correlation is essential to avoid histological errors after pathological fracture in a non-ossifying fibroma.
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ranking = 8.3826988031791
keywords = fracture
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3/245. Desmoid fibromatosis of the shoulder and of the upper chest wall following a clavicular fracture.

    A desmoid tumor of the shoulder girdle infiltrating the upper chest wall and weighing 1500 g was almost completely removed in an 18-year-old man, 27 months after a bifocal fracture of the clavicule. Thirteen years later, the patient was free of recurrence. The interval time between trauma and diagnosis, as the particular characteristics of aggressive fibromatosis, strongly support a major causal role of the clavicular fracture in the occurrence of this tumor.
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ranking = 5.588465868786
keywords = fracture
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4/245. Selective delivery of doxorubicin to patients with breast carcinoma metastases by stealth liposomes.

    BACKGROUND: Stealth liposomes hold promise as a mode of delivering cytotoxic agents selectively to tumors in cancer patients. The objective of this study was to determine whether stealth liposomal doxorubicin accumulates selectively in bone metastases based on clinical material obtained from two patients with breast carcinoma. methods: Tumor tissue was obtained from two women (ages 33 years and 41 years, respectively) with metastatic breast carcinoma who responded to treatment with stealth liposomal doxorubicin and later underwent a surgical fixation procedure to treat a pathologic fracture of the femur. Drug levels in the tumor and adjacent muscle were examined by high performance liquid chromatography analysis in both patients and by fluorescence microscopy in one of the patients. RESULTS: Bone tumor fragments obtained during surgery performed 6 days after the administration of the 12th course of stealth liposomal doxorubicin in 1 patient and 12 days after the administration of the 16th course of stealth liposomal doxorubicin in the second patient had a 10-fold greater concentration of liposomal doxorubicin than tumor free muscle. doxorubicin fluorescence and specific nuclear staining showed good colocalization, thus confirming the presence of the liposome-delivered drug in the nuclei of tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS: Using skeletal muscle as a comparator, stealth liposomal doxorubicin accumulates selectively in metastatic breast carcinoma cells within bone.
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ranking = 0.93141097813101
keywords = fracture
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5/245. Osteogenic sarcoma with skeletal muscle metastases.

    Two cases of osteogenic sarcoma with skeletal muscle metastases are described. A 40-year-old woman presented with progressive swelling of both calves and a soft tissue back lump. She had been diagnosed with mandibular chondroblastic osteogenic sarcoma 6 years earlier. Radiographs showed calcified masses. MRI scans and bone scintigraphy revealed multiple soft tissue masses in both calves. Bone scintigraphy also showed uptake in the back lump, right thigh and left lung base. biopsy confirmed metastatic chondroblastic osteogenic sarcoma, which initially responded well to chemotherapy. However, the metastatic disease subsequently progressed rapidly and she died 21 months after presentation. The second case concerns a 20-year-old man who presented with a pathologic fracture of the humerus, which was found to be due to osteoblastic osteogenic sarcoma. He developed cerebral metastases 17 months later, followed by metastases at other sites. Calcified masses were subsequently seen on radiographs of the abdomen and chest. CT scans confirmed the presence of densely calcified muscle metastases in the abdominal wall, erector spinae and gluteal muscles. The patient's disease progressed rapidly and he died 30 months after presentation.
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ranking = 0.93141097813101
keywords = fracture
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6/245. Free vascularized fibula grafts in surgery of the upper limb.

    Twenty patients with intractable diseases in the upper extremity were treated using free vascularized fibula grafts. There were 13 men and seven women. Three patients had traumatic bone defects, five had post-traumatic nonunions, two had congenital pseudoarthroses, seven had defects after tumor resection, and three had other lesions. The reconstructed sites were the humerus in two patients, the radius and/or ulna in 17, and the metacarpal and phalangeal bones in one. The length of the bone defect ranged from 3 to 18 cm (mean: 8.4 cm). Follow-up periods ranged from 6 to 204 months. No patient required additional bone grafts. The mean period required to obtain radiographic bone union was 4.4 months. There were no cases with fractures of the grafted bone, but malunion occurred in four cases. The vascularized fibula graft is indicated in patients with large bone defects or intractable nonunions in the humerus, radius, and/or ulna.
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ranking = 0.93141097813101
keywords = fracture
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7/245. Malignant chondroblastoma presenting as a recurrent pelvic tumor with dna aneuploidy and p53 mutation as supportive evidence of malignancy.

    We report a rare case of malignant chondroblastoma, which presented in a 47-year-old man as a recurrent tumor, 18 years following wide excision of a typical pelvic chondroblastoma. Radiologic studies of the recurrent tumor showed a large, lytic, destructive lesion of the right pelvic bones and femur, with a pathologic fracture of the latter, a large pelvic soft tissue mass, and multiple pulmonary metastases. biopsy tissue showed typical features of chondroblastoma, but also increased nuclear atypia, hyperchromasia, and pleomorphism, compared to the original tumor, and, most significantly, abnormal mitotic figures. Immunohistochemical studies of the recurrent tumor revealed p53 mutation and extensive proliferative activity, and flow cytometric studies showed dna aneuploidy, none of which was present in the original tumor. The patient received chemotherapy and radiation, but died of disease eight months after presentation. We also review chondroblastoma in general, to assign this unusual lesion to a tumor subtype.
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ranking = 0.93141097813101
keywords = fracture
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8/245. Pathologic fracture of the humerus due to metastatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    cholangiocarcinoma is a rare tumor of the bile duct system known to frequently metastasize to the axial skeleton, lungs, adrenal glands, brain, and lymphatic system. Spread to the long bones has not previously been reported in the literature partly because of the short life expectancies of patients with this disease. We discuss a case of a pathologic humerus fracture due to metastatic cholangiocarcinoma.
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ranking = 4.657054890655
keywords = fracture
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9/245. Two cases of secondary angiosarcoma arising from fibrous dysplasia.

    Angiosarcoma associated with fibrous dysplasia is very rare. We have recently experienced two cases of angiosarcoma that secondarily arose from fibrous dysplasia. The first patient, a 55 year-old man, had noticed a deformity in the right upper arm since he was five years old. At the age of 25 years, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia was diagnosed by X-ray examination. The patient complained of swelling and pain around the left shoulder. The diaphysis of the humerus was mostly non-observable due to severe bone destruction by tumor invasion and there was a large soft tissue tumor. biopsy examination revealed grade II or III hemangioendothelioma with typical histologic findings of fibrous dysplasia. After interscapulothoracic amputation for wide tumor resection, he died of DIC. autopsy revealed multiple liver metastatic lesions of angiosarcoma. The second patient was a 66-year-old woman. She presented with a pathological fracture in the right tibia, due to an osteolytic lesion with cortical bone swelling and thinning. The histologic diagnosis was fibrous dysplasia without any sarcomatous changes. However, after a 3-time recurrence, angiosarcoma arose from the same lesion. She is now still alive with disease-free period of 6.5 years after amputation.
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ranking = 0.93141097813101
keywords = fracture
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10/245. Osteoid osteoma after a stress fracture of the tibia: a case report.

    A 24-year-old man presented with a stress fracture over his left tibia following an infantry training 6 years ago. x-rays of his left tibia revealed a stress fracture and bone scan showed marked tracer uptake at the fracture. He was treated conservatively but his pain persisted since then. Five years later, x-rays and histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. The stress fracture may act as a trigger for the formation of osteoid osteoma and caused a delay in diagnosis.
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ranking = 7.931410978131
keywords = fracture, stress fracture
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