Cases reported "Bone Neoplasms"

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1/130. Bone metastases from a paraganglioma. A review of five cases.

    Paragangliomas are infrequent, usually benign tumors developed from neuroectoderm cells. The neck is the most common location, although some cases arise within the abdominal cavity, usually in the retroperitoneal space. We report five cases with bone metastases. In three patients, convincing evidence was obtained that the primary was in the retroperitoneal space. Clinical manifestations of metastatic bone disease occurred up to 17 years after the diagnosis of paraganglioma. Useful data were obtained from plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, serum and urine catecholamine assays, and above all meta 123iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. Histologic and immunohistochemical studies of the lesion yielded the definite diagnosis. Surgery and radiation therapy are the two mainstays of therapy. Although rare, metastatic forms of paraganglioma should be borne in mind. This diagnosis should be entertained in patients with bone lesions and recent-onset arterial hypertension, irrespective of whether they report a history of surgery for a tumor, and even if this tumor was removed many years earlier and labeled benign.
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2/130. Osteochondroma and secondary synovial osteochondromatosis.

    Secondary synovial osteochondromatosis (SOC) is a rare disorder caused by a variety of joint disorders. Two unusual cases of secondary SOC are presented. The first patient is a 43-year-old man with extensive SOC developing within a bursa surrounding an osteochondroma of the pubic bone. The second patient is a 23-year-old man who developed florid and progressive SOC of his hip joint following excision of a femoral neck osteochondroma. SOC recurred despite three excisions over a 15-month period. Imaging was useful in pre-operative diagnosis of bursal SOC in the first patient and in detecting multiple recurrences in the second patient. Both cases illustrate prominent SOC developing secondary to osteochondroma. The different hypotheses regarding bursal and secondary SOC are reviewed.
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3/130. Tumor-induced osteomalacia and symptomatic looser zones secondary to mesenchymal chondrosarcoma.

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia is a rare clinical entity that is associated with soft-tissue or skeletal tumors. We present a case report of a patient with a chest wall mesenchymal chondrosarcoma who presented with bone pain. The patient had skeletal changes in the femoral neck and fibula consistent with osteomalacia and laboratory values suggesting phosphate diabetes. The patient was treated with tumor resection and phosphate supplementation with reversal of the signs and symptoms of osteomalacia. Tumor-induced osteomalacia is vitamin-D-resistant and often reversed by complete removal of the tumor. Most commonly, the causative tumors are of vascular, mesenchymal, or fibrous origin. The osteomalacia is associated with bone pain, muscle weakness, and radiographic changes. Tumor-induced humoral factors have been implicated in causing the osteomalacia, but the definite etiology has yet to be determined. Current treatment includes complete tumor resection and electrolyte supplementation.
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4/130. somatostatin receptor scintigraphy for early detection of regional and distant metastases of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid.

    Three patients are described who had regional and distant metastases of medullary thyroid cancer detected by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy but not by CT; two had minimal disease that was amenable to surgery. The first patient had been followed for 2 years before having a repeated scan and positive CT, with subsequent surgical removal of metastatic paratracheal nodes. The plasma calcitonin level, however, did not approach normal values after surgery, and a third scan showed persistence of focal uptake in the left paratracheal area of the lower neck, whereas CT was negative. At repeated exploration, a tumor mass of medullary carcinoma, embedded in lymphatic tissue, was removed. Nine months after the last surgical procedure, calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen levels were normal. The second patient underwent microdissection of the mediastinum and removal of two metastatic nodes that were demonstrable only by the scintigraphic technique. The plasma calcitonin level subsequently became normal. The third patient, with multiple endocrine neoplasia IIB and associated pheochromocytoma, had bony metastatic involvement of the left shoulder, demonstrable initially on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and subsequently with radioiodinated metaiodobenzylguanidine but not on CT.
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5/130. Giant cell tumour of the hyoid--first reported case.

    Giant cell tumours of bone are most commonly found in the epiphyses of weight-bearing long bones. They are rarely found in the head and neck and only 17 cases involving the laryngeal framework have been reported. To date, there have been no reports of a giant cell tumour arising from the hyoid bone. We present such a case which presented as a lump overlying the greater cornu of the hyoid, review the literature and discuss the management of this locally aggressive tumour.
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6/130. chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone.

    The CT and MRI findings in a case of chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone are reported. Although chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor, only 10 % of chondrosarcomas occur in the head and neck region. The hyoid bone is a rare site of involvement with only seven cases reported previously.
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7/130. Intraosseus teratoma of the iliac bone.

    We present a 4-year-old child with a large iliac bone mass incidentally discovered in a plain abdominal radiograph. The pathological examination revealed a benign mature teratoma. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of intraosseous mature teratoma has not been previously reported. The child had had an immature teratoma of the neck discovered in a fetal ultrasound, and resected on day 6 of life. The neck teratoma recurred twice, at 16 months and at 3.5 years of age. In these two recurrences the lesion appeared progressively more mature. At the time of discovery of the iliac bone teratoma there was no evidence of residual neck disease. The radiological and pathological characteristics, differential diagnosis, and clinical course are discussed.
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8/130. Intravascular occlusive therapy: use of interventional radiology in cancer patients.

    Selective transcatheter intravascular occlusion in the treatment of cancer patients is a valuable extension of interventional diagnostic radiology. Intra-arterial embolization may be performed with various substances, including autologous clot, autologous subcutaneous tissue, Gelfoam, and stainless steel coil. Clinical applications in cancer patients include control of gastrointestinal and genitourinary hemorrhage, preoperative reduction of tumor vascularity, control of local symptoms, and therapeutic reduction of tumor bulk. The technique has been used for preoperative and palliative treatment of neoplasms of the head and neck, kidney, liver, spleen, and soft tissue and bone. Transcatheter intravascular occlusion should be performed only by radiologists experienced in angiographic techniques. Inadvertent occlusion of a normal vessel and thromboembolism are possible complications.
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9/130. Osteoid osteoma of the scapular neck: a case report.

    Osteoid osteoma localised in the scapula are very rare. We report the case of an 11-year-old girl, who presented with an osteoid osteoma at the neck of the glenoid. This was excised en bloc after being located accurately by computed tomography. This case report demonstrates the difficulty in the approach to the excision of this unusually located lesion.
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10/130. Cutaneous metastases as initial manifestation of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of bone. An autopsy case with review of the literature.

    Metastases of chondrosarcoma to the skin are uncommon. We report a case of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma that manifested as cutaneous metastases and had an outcome of three weeks. A 69-year-old male presented with two cutaneous nodules, one in the chest and other in the inguinal area. The punch biopsy of the latter showed a poorly differentiated mesenchymal metastatic tumor. Shortly before death, an X-ray revealed a proximal epiphyseal lesion in the right humerus, radiographically interpreted as chondrosarcoma. The autopsy showed this lesion to be a dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma whose nonchondroid mesenchymal part was akin, histologically and immunohistochemically, to the cutaneous metastases. While ten previous reports of chondrosarcoma metastatic to the skin are known, we believe that this is the first case to report the cutaneous metastases of the dedifferentiated variety. Furthermore, skin metastasis preceding the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma has not been previously reported. The fact that one part of this kind of tumor can be highly undifferentiated or, else, differentiated along lines not usually reminiscent of bone tumors, can make the diagnosis of such cases extremely difficult. Most chondrosarcomas metastatic to the skin arise in bones of the extremities, including the hand. The most common type of tumor is conventional chondrosarcoma. These metastases can be either single or multiple with a slight predilection for the head and neck region. Most patients die in a mean time of 6 months after the appearance of cutaneous metastases.
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