Cases reported "Bone Neoplasms"

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1/414. Pseudoanaplastic giant cell tumor of bone.

    Marked nuclear atypia can be found in a variety of benign mesenchymal tumors, including ancient schwannomas, symplastic leiomyomas, osteoblastomas, and chondromyxoid fibromas. Such nuclear atypia is believed to represent a degenerative phenomenon and does not indicate aggressive behavior. Separation of these pleomorphic but benign lesions from true sarcomas may be difficult. We are aware of only one prior description of such degenerative atypia in benign giant cell tumor of bone. We report a benign giant cell tumor of bone arising in the sacrum of a 21-year-old white female. Preoperative embolization of this lesion had been performed, and subsequent curetting revealed marked atypia suggestive of an anaplastic malignancy. However, only very rare mitotic figures were present, and the radiographs were consistent with a benign giant cell tumor. A diagnosis of benign giant cell tumor was made, and no recurrence or metastases have been observed during the 4-year postoperative period.
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2/414. A rotating-hinge knee replacement for malignant tumors of the femur and tibia.

    We evaluated the 2- to 7-year results of a rotating-hinge knee replacement after excision of malignant tumors of the knee joint. There were 25 distal femoral and 7 proximal tibial replacements. The 5-year prosthetic survival for distal femoral replacements was 88%, compared with 58% for proximal tibial replacements. Seven patients underwent prosthetic exchange: 1 for aseptic loosening, 2 for wound slough and perioperative infection, and 4 for articulating component failure. One patient underwent above-knee amputation owing to skin necrosis. The median functional scores at the latest follow-up were 27 by the International Society of limb salvage evaluation system and 80 by the Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Score system. This implant is a promising choice for joint reconstruction after excision of tumors at the knee joint.
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3/414. Vascularized fibular graft after excision of giant cell tumor of the distal radius. A case report.

    Although hemiarthroplasty of the wrist using vascularized proximal fibula has been described often, long term results with documentation of results are insufficient. A case of giant cell tumor of the distal radius with remarkable extraskeletal extension is reported. Vascularized fibula including its proximal head was used to replace the defect created after en bloc resection of the tumor. There was no deterioration in radiographic findings or function of the new joint at the time of the 10-year followup. Satisfactory range of motion of the wrist and the forearm was maintained. There was no instability in the joint, and grip strength measured 65% of the opposite side. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed survival of the whole graft, including the subchondral portion. In addition to thorough revascularization of the graft, appropriate soft tissue reconstruction using dynamic tendon transfer contributed to the success. When these requirements are fulfilled, the graft can provide a functional and durable result. Although this is a single experience, the authors recommend wrist arthroplasty, rather than arthrodesis, in carefully selected patients.
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4/414. The surgical management of sacrococcygeal chordoma.

    BACKGROUND: Complete excision of sacrococcygeal chordoma is necessary at initial surgery due to its poor sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, due to the anatomic characteristics of this tumor, intralesional excision tends to be employed, resulting in local recurrences in many patients. methods: The clinical features and results of surgical treatment of 13 patients with sacrococcygeal chordoma who were treated at the Chiba Cancer Center and Chiba University beginning in 1972 were analyzed. RESULTS: Intralesional excision was performed in eight patients, marginal excision in two patients, and wide excision in three patients. Local recurrence was observed in six patients, with a high proportion occurring in the gluteal muscles attached to the sacrum (the gluteus maximus muscle and piriform muscle). Seven patients died of their disease and six patients were alive with no evidence of disease. The 5-year survival rate was 81.8% and the 10-year survival rate was 29.1%. CONCLUSIONS: It is highly possible that residual chordoma infiltrating the gluteal muscles accounts mainly for the local recurrences. Therefore, a precise preoperative assessment of the tumor infiltration into the gluteal muscles by magnetic resonance imaging is important for the prevention of local recurrence. For complete tumor removal, a radical wide posterior surgical margin of the gluteal muscles should be employed. A less radical anterior surgical margin is sufficient because there is a firm presacral fascia anterior to the sacrum. The appropriate surgical margin for the complete removal of the chordoma differs according to the location of the tumor and tissues involved.
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5/414. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment of primary bone sarcoma of the pelvis.

    BACKGROUND: Symptoms arising from primary bone sarcoma of the pelvic girdle are often insidious in onset and nonspecific in nature. To make the subtle initial signs and symptoms of these tumors more apparent to clinicians, we studied a cohort of patients who had a primary bone sarcoma of the pelvic girdle. Our purpose was to describe the initial clinical findings and to evaluate the duration, frequency, and implications of delays in the treatment of these tumors. methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data on sixty-eight patients who had a primary bone sarcoma of the pelvic girdle. The data that we reviewed included demographic characteristics; histological diagnosis; anatomical location, size, and stage of the tumor; characteristics of the biopsy specimen; duration and description of symptoms before an accurate diagnosis was made; delay before recognition of the tumor on radiographs; results of diagnostic imaging; inaccurate diagnoses; type of intervention based on these inaccurate diagnoses; and outcome with regard to survival. There were forty high-grade sarcomas and twenty-eight low-grade sarcomas. RESULTS: Excluding two asymptomatic patients in whom the sarcoma was noted incidentally, the average duration of symptoms before an accurate diagnosis was made was ten months (median, six months; range, one month to four years). Common symptoms and findings on physical examination included pain in the buttock (twenty-three patients; 35 percent), a mass (twenty patients; 30 percent), sciatica (nineteen patients; 29 percent), pain in the hip (seventeen patients; 26 percent), pain in the groin (thirteen patients; 20 percent), and low-back pain (fourteen patients; 21 percent). In thirty (44 percent) of the sixty-eight patients, the pelvic sarcoma was not recognized initially and an inaccurate diagnosis was made. The misdiagnoses included a herniated lumbar disc, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, tendinitis, bursitis, an inguinal hernia, a stress fracture, a pilonidal cyst, a recurrent urinary-tract infection, and degenerative arthritis of the spine, hip, and knee. Inappropriate treatment for these misdiagnoses included seven operative procedures (two laminectomies, two debridements, one hip arthrotomy, one total knee replacement, and one inguinal herniorrhaphy), six courses of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, five chiropractic adjustments, four trials of physical therapy, and three local injections of steroids. It took an average of seven months for the clinicians to arrive at the diagnosis of primary pelvic sarcoma. With the numbers available, no significant association between the duration of symptoms before an accurate diagnosis was made and the grade or the stage of the tumor could be detected. In addition, no association between the duration of symptoms and the survival of the patient (p = 0.54) could be determined, with univariate analysis. The grade and the stage of the tumor were strongly associated with the outcome, with a low tumor grade proving to be a favorable prognostic indicator for survival (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: patients who have a primary bone sarcoma of the pelvis often have had symptoms for a long duration that mimic those of more commonly encountered non-neoplastic musculoskeletal conditions. When a patient has symptoms that appear to be out of the ordinary, particularly refractory pain or pain at rest, physicians should include the pelvic girdle in the evaluation and should carefully examine a high-quality radiograph of the entire pelvis.
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6/414. Vertebral osteoblastoma: are radiologic structural changes necessary for diagnosis?

    BACKGROUND: A case of osteoblastoma localized at the pedicle of the 10th thoracic vertebra is presented. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient complained of nocturnal back pain not relieved by salycilates, a typical symptom of osteoblastoma. Bone scintigraphy showed a lower thoracic focus of increased osteoblastic activity; however, x-rays, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance images (MRI) were within normal limits, showing only obscure changes that were also noted in the rest of the spine. Repeat MRI with contrast revealed a focal enhancement. After pediculectomy, histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of osteoblastoma. Fifteen months postoperatively, the patient is symptom-free. CONCLUSION: Our case demonstrates that some cases of osteoblastoma may not have the classical radiological appearance. Although non-contrast computed tomography and T1-weighted MRI are mildly positive in some instances, osteoblastoma is best visualized on MRI with gadolinium. Like any other neoplasm, osteoblastoma should be detected and removed early, before it can cause structural bony changes.
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7/414. Ewing's sarcoma presenting as a posterior mediastinal mass: a lesson learned.

    Thoracic vertebral body hemicorpectomy and chest wall resection was performed in a 17-year-old male patient with a posterior mediastinal tumor thought to be neurogenic in origin. No preoperative tissue diagnostic endeavor was made. Final pathologic diagnosis showed this tumor to be Ewing's sarcoma. This communication alerts the thoracic surgeon to the need for definitive diagnosis of posterior mediastinal masses with vertebral body involvement, particularly in children. induction chemotherapy is the accepted standard of management of these sarcomas.
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8/414. Osteochondroma and secondary synovial osteochondromatosis.

    Secondary synovial osteochondromatosis (SOC) is a rare disorder caused by a variety of joint disorders. Two unusual cases of secondary SOC are presented. The first patient is a 43-year-old man with extensive SOC developing within a bursa surrounding an osteochondroma of the pubic bone. The second patient is a 23-year-old man who developed florid and progressive SOC of his hip joint following excision of a femoral neck osteochondroma. SOC recurred despite three excisions over a 15-month period. Imaging was useful in pre-operative diagnosis of bursal SOC in the first patient and in detecting multiple recurrences in the second patient. Both cases illustrate prominent SOC developing secondary to osteochondroma. The different hypotheses regarding bursal and secondary SOC are reviewed.
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9/414. Small mucosal carcinoma of the stomach with para-aortic lymph node metastasis: a case report and review of the literature.

    A 38-year-old woman presented with a mucosal gastric carcinoma measuring 0.7 x 0.5 cm and para-aortic lymph node metastasis. Radiographic and endoscopic studies showed a small depressed lesion on the anterior border of the gastric angle, which was classified as a type II c III lesion. Histological examination of the biopsy specimen revealed a signet-ring cell carcinoma. Distal gastrectomy with wide lymph node excision was performed. Detailed study of the resected specimen revealed that the tumour was limited to the mucosa, but metastasized to both the perigastric and para-aortic lymph nodes. The patient received adjuvant immunochemotherapy postoperatively. However, multiple bone metastases developed at 3 years and she died 4 years after the operation.
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10/414. Combined surgical approach for sarcoma lung metastasis with atrial involvement.

    A 20-year-old patient, who had been treated for a femur sarcoma with pulmonary metastases 8 years before, arrived at our institution with a new metastatic hilar lung nodule. During the standard lobectomy procedure an unexpected atrial invasion by the tumor was discovered. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) showed a big pediculated tumor in the atrium. cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was required in order to safely resect the atrial wall with the tumor. The atrial defect was repaired with a pericardial patch. Postoperative course was uneventful. After 14 months, the patient is asymptomatic and free of disease.
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