Cases reported "Borrelia Infections"

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1/8. Borrelia lonestari infection after a bite by an Amblyomma americanum tick.

    Erythematous rashes that are suggestive of early lyme disease have been associated with the bite of Amblyomma americanum ticks, particularly in the southern united states. However, borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, has not been cultured from skin biopsy specimens from these patients, and diagnostic serum antibodies usually have not been found. Borrelia lonestari sp nov, an uncultured spirochete, has been detected in A. americanum ticks by dna amplification techniques, but its role in human illness is unknown. We observed erythema migrans in a patient with an attached A. americanum tick. dna amplification of the flagellin gene flaB produced B. lonestari sequences from the skin of the patient that were identical to those found in the attached tick. B. lonestari is a probable cause of erythema migrans in humans.
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2/8. Dropped head syndrome in mitochondriopathy.

    In a 63-year-old, 165-cm-tall woman with a history of repeated tick bites, dilative cardiomyopathy, osteoporosis, progressive head ptosis with neck stiffness and cervical pain developed. The family history was positive for thyroid dysfunction and neuromuscular disorders. Neurological examination revealed prominent forward head drop, weak anteflexion and retroflexion, nuchal rigidity, weakness of the shoulder girdle, cogwheel rigidity, and tetraspasticity. The lactate stress test was abnormal. Electromyograms of various muscles were myogenic. Muscle biopsy showed non-specific myogenic abnormalities and generally weak staining for cytochrome oxydase. Mitochondriopathy with multi-organ involvement was suspected. The response to anti-Parkinson medication was poor. In conclusion, dropped head syndrome (DHS) may be due to multi-organ mitochondriopathy, manifesting as Parkinsonism, tetraspasticity, dilative cardiomyopathy, osteoporosis, short stature, and myopathy. Anti-Parkinson medication is of limited effect.
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3/8. Painful hallucinations and somatic delusions in a patient with the possible diagnosis of neuroborreliosis.

    Neuroborreliosis has become the most frequently recognized tick-borne infection of the nervous system in europe and the united states. In addition to dermatological, cardiac, articular, and neurologic manifestations, psychiatric disorders such as depression, panic attacks, and schizophrenia-like psychosis can also arise. We report on a 61-year-old woman who developed a severe pain syndrome following several tick bites. She was diagnosed with neuroborreliosis; she received various courses of antibiotics over several years, but without any clinical improvement in her condition. Her eventual admission to a psychiatric ward due to mental symptoms and neuroleptic treatment led to a dramatic improvement of her pain symptoms. However, increasing delusions disclosed a psychotic episode, which ceased over time. We discuss therapeutic difficulties and psychiatric complications in the absence of a clear-cut diagnosis of neuroborreliosis. Although this patient might have suffered from late-onset schizophrenia with painful hallucinations right from the start of her disease, the case highlights psychiatric complications that might be associated with neuroborreliosis.
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4/8. Bilateral facial palsy caused by the Borrelia spirochete.

    A case of total left peripheral and partial right peripheral facial palsy caused by the Borrelia spirochete is presented. The diagnosis was confirmed by the history of the tick-bites and elevated titers of IgG in serum and cerebrospinal fluid.
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5/8. Borrelia infection in children.

    All children (less than or equal to 15 years) admitted during 1986 to Sachs Children's Hospital and presenting signs of facial palsy and/or meningitis, or with a history of known tick bite followed by headache, fatigue and muscle pain, were investigated for antibodies to Borrelia in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. (The hospital's catchment area has a high incidence of tick-borne borrelia infections.) Significantly elevated antibody titre was found in 15 of the 33 patients, in three cases only in cerebrospinal fluid. Eight of the 15 children had facial palsy, which was concomitant with meningitis in six cases. Intravenous penicillin was given to all 15 patients with positive antibody titre, and additionally to three severely ill small children with facial palsy and meningitis. Furthermore, two cases of erythema chronicum migrans, which is considered pathognomonic for Borrelia infection, were treated with penicillin perorally. Cases of Borrelia infection occurred throughout the year, but with a peak in August. To emphasize the variety of symptoms, three cases are presented in some detail.
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6/8. Chronic central nervous system involvement in Lyme borreliosis.

    We describe four patients with marked chronic meningoencephalomyelitis caused by tick-transmitted borrelia burgdorferi infection. Imaging techniques showed either MS-like lesions or evidence of vascular involvement, as in other spirochetal infections, especially in meningovascular syphilis.
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7/8. Neurologic complications of erythema-migrans-disease in childhood--clinical aspects.

    Erythema-migrans-disease represents a tick-borne borreliosis with a high and widespread incidence according to first epidemiological surveys. The early symptom is a distinctive erythema migrans eventually followed by arthritis and cardiac involvement as well as neurologic complications in the form of lymphocytic meningoradiculitis Garin-Bujadoux-Bannwarth. In a one-year-period we observed 9 children who developed neurologic complications as the predominant feature of erythema-migrans-disease. Eight children suffered from a lymphocytic meningitis and/or a peripheral facial palsy and one child presented with a severe polyradiculoneuritis with complete transverse myelitis. In contrast to adults the clinical course of neurologic manifestations in children seems to be milder and shorter and not associated with the typical painful radiculitis. Acute Bell's palsy seems to be a rather common symptom, whereas other peripheral pareses of the mononeuritis multiplex type were not observed. With respect to the assumed frequency and because of the possibility of antibiotic therapy, erythema-migrans-disease should be ruled out in any case of so-called idiopathic facial palsy or aseptic meningitis, which are frequently encountered in children.
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8/8. association of acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans and morphea.

    A patient developed successively acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA) and localized scleroderma. ACA was demonstrated to be a tick-borne disease, whereas morphea is only suspected to be one. As morphea appeared after successful treatment of ACA, it suggests that localized scleroderma is not directly an infectious disease but might be rather the consequence of spirochetal infection.
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