Cases reported "Brachial Plexus Neuritis"

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1/39. Neuralgic amyotrophy with phrenic nerve involvement.

    phrenic nerve involvement is a rare feature in patients with neuralgic amyotrophy (Parsonage-turner syndrome). We report four patients who initially presented with severe dyspnea in the absence of lung disease. All patients had a history of infectious disease or surgery and of pain of sudden onset in the shoulder region. Weakness of the proximal arm was observed in only one. Radiographic and pulmonary function studies, phrenic nerve conduction studies, and needle electromyogram (EMG) of the diaphragm documented diaphragmatic paralysis which was unilateral in one patient, bilateral in two patients, and recurrent on alternating sides in another one. follow-up studies remained abnormal for up to 4 years. Neuralgic amyotrophy with phrenic nerve involvement should be considered in patients presenting with severe, unexplained dyspnea of sudden onset.
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keywords = nerve
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2/39. Neuralgic amyotrophy presenting with bilateral vocal cord paralysis in a child: a case report.

    Acute stridor and bilateral vocal cord paralysis is not uncommon in the neonate but is unusual in the older child. We report the first case of bilateral vocal cord paralysis secondary to neuralgic amyotrophy, a peripheral polyneuropathy, in a 5-year-old child. An extensive workup revealed a paralyzed right hemidiaphragm, arm weakness and an EMG pattern consistent with neuralgic amyotrophy. Neuralgic amyotrophy is an uncommon disorder in pediatric patients which may involve cranial and peripheral nerves including the phrenic nerves and rarely the recurrent laryngeal nerves. We propose that the diagnosis be considered in children who present with bilateral vocal cord paralysis and other associated neurologic findings.
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ranking = 2.678977276602
keywords = neuropathy, peripheral nerve, peripheral, nerve
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3/39. Adhesive capsulitis of the glenohumeral joint with an unusual neuropathic presentation: a case report.

    A 37-yr-old woman presented with a 7-mo history of unilateral shoulder girdle stiffness, pain, and weakness and had already been diagnosed with frozen shoulder. physical examination revealed scapular winging and suspicious focal paralysis of shoulder girdle muscles. Subsequently, electrodiagnostic studies reported denervation of deltoid, infraspinatus, serratus anterior, and lower cervical paraspinal muscles, in addition to a prolonged long thoracic nerve latency. The history, physical examination, and cervical magnetic resonance imaging scan seemed most consistent with neuralgic amyotrophy, although the electrodiagnostic examination could be interpreted as cervical radiculopathy. Some of the difficulties in identifying neuralgic amyotrophy and distinguishing it from cervical radiculopathy are discussed herein. Historically, frozen shoulder has seemed to develop as a complication of the neuropathic process. Both neuralgic amyotrophy and frozen shoulder have a poorly understood pathogenesis, and their combined presence is presumed to be rare. Because of difficulties inherent in the physical examination of frozen shoulder, a coexistent neuropathic process may go undetected.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = nerve
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4/39. Hypertrophic inflammatory neuropathy involving bilateral brachial plexus.

    BACKGROUND: The present case is an example of hypertrophic inflammatory neuropathy (HIN). This entity is a rare tumor-like, chronic inflammatory, focal or multifocal, mainly demyelinating neuropathy of unknown origin, most frequently involving the brachial plexus. CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors describe a 67-year-old man presenting with a nodular mass in his right supraclavicular fossa. A nodular mass grossly resembling a schwannoma originating from a single nerve fascicle was surgically removed from the right C6 spinal nerve. Histologically, endoneurial edema, fibrosis, focal chronic inflammation, and extensive "onion bulb" formation were seen. Electron microscopy studies and immunohistochemistry proved that the onion bulb-forming cells were schwannian in nature and that the whorls of onion bulbs surrounded a generally demyelinated axon. Three months following surgery the patient developed acute painless paralysis of his right biceps brachii muscle that rapidly reversed; after that he remained neurologically asymptomatic. MRI revealed multiple fusiform mass lesions involving the brachial plexus bilaterally. Electrophysiologic studies demonstrated a bilateral, asymmetrical, mainly demyelinating neuropathy involving the brachial plexus; they failed to reveal any abnormality suggestive of generalized neuropathy. CONCLUSION: HIN is different from other focal tumor-like neuropathies and in particular from localized hypertrophic neuropathy (LHN).
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ranking = 15.023853927907
keywords = neuropathy, nerve
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5/39. Viral brachial neuritis in emergency medicine.

    brachial plexus neuritis is a rare neurologic disease that may be overlooked in emergency medicine because other conditions are much more common. We report a case of brachial plexus neuropathy due to cytomegalovirus infection. The diagnosis was based on history, clinical findings, laboratory tests, and electromyography. early diagnosis and adequate treatment is important to avoid unnecessary investigation, prevent complications (especially adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder), and reassure the patient.
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ranking = 1.6375710713548
keywords = neuropathy
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6/39. Respiratory weakness in neuralgic amyotrophy: report of two cases with phrenic nerve involvement.

    An isolated affection of the phrenic nerve is a rare feature in patients with neuralgic amyotrophy. We report 1 case each of bilateral and unilateral phrenic neuropathy. The first patient presented a sudden onset of severe respiratory failure without pain. The second patient developed intense pain in the neck and in the right shoulder followed by dyspnea on mild effort and orthopnea. Chest x-rays showed elevation of the diaphragm. Needle electromyography revealed denervation restricted to the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve conduction was within the normal range. The diagnosis of neuralgic amyotrophy may be particularly difficult when the palsy of the phrenic nerve appears without brachial plexus involvement or the typical shoulder pain of acute onset. In our patients, electrophysiological evaluation combined with radiographic studies, ventilatory parameters and biochemical analyses were helpful in establishing the diagnosis.
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ranking = 2.6375710713548
keywords = neuropathy, nerve
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7/39. Acute brachial plexus neuritis: an uncommon cause of shoulder pain.

    patients with acute brachial plexus neuritis are often misdiagnosed as having cervical radiculopathy. Acute brachial plexus neuritis is an uncommon disorder characterized by severe shoulder and upper arm pain followed by marked upper arm weakness. The temporal profile of pain preceding weakness is important in establishing a prompt diagnosis and differentiating acute brachial plexus neuritis from cervical radiculopathy. magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder and upper arm musculature may reveal denervation within days, allowing prompt diagnosis. electromyography, conducted three to four weeks after the onset of symptoms, can localize the lesion and help confirm the diagnosis. Treatment includes analgesics and physical therapy, with resolution of symptoms usually occurring in three to four months. patients with cervical radiculopathy present with simultaneous pain and neurologic deficits that fit a nerve root pattern. This differentiation is important to avoid unnecessary surgery for cervical spondylotic changes in a patient with a plexitis.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = nerve
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8/39. Acute-onset painful upper limb multifocal demyelinating motor neuropathy.

    We report three patients who presented with acute onset of shoulder and upper arm pain followed within a few days by predominantly distal upper limb weakness. Nerve conduction studies showed severe and unequivocal focal motor conduction block in the forearm and/or upper arm along with slowing of motor conduction and prolonged F wave responses. Only very mild changes in sensory nerve conduction were found. One patient made partial clinical improvement after 17 months, and there was a significant improvement in the degree of motor conduction block and the motor conduction velocities. A second patient remained unchanged after 5 months. Idiopathic brachial neuritis (IBN) typically presents acutely with brachialgia and acute or subacute non-progressive weakness. Multifocal motor conduction block in nerves in the arm or forearm has not been described in patients with IBN. Multifocal motor conduction block restricted to the upper limbs has been described in focal chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and in multifocal motor neuropathy with multifocal motor conduction block (MMNCB). However, both these conditions have hitherto usually been described as largely painless chronic progressive disorders with a subacute onset. Our patients, with features overlapping MMNCB/CIDP and IBN, represent an as yet unreported clinical variant.
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ranking = 10.111140713843
keywords = neuropathy, nerve
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9/39. Wartenberg's migrant sensory neuritis.

    We describe a patient with the sudden onset of a painful, purely sensory, mononeuritis multiplex. Investigations showed no evidence for any underlying systemic condition. A nerve biopsy showed fascicular wallerian degeneration with perineurial thickening, inflammatory cells, and immunoglobulin g (IgG) deposition. His painful sensory deficits persisted, with no improvement after treatment with prednisone. The clinical characteristics in this case were very similar to those originally described by Wartenberg, and subsequently by other investigators. The investigations in our case strongly suggest that there may be an underlying immune pathogenesis for cases of Wartenberg's migrant sensory neuritis.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = nerve
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10/39. Parsonage-turner syndrome after total-hip arthroplasty.

    A 68-year-old patient developed Parsonage-turner syndrome after total hip arthroplasty. There was an acute onset of intense pain in the shoulder 48 hours after surgery followed by complete paralysis of the shoulder and almost complete loss of strength in the arm. Recovery was slow, and mild weakness persisted 7 years after the operation. Parsonage-turner syndrome has been associated with various surgical procedures but has not been reported after total hip arthroplasty. For medicolegal reasons, it should be distinguished from a traction injury of the brachial plexus or compression of the radial or ulnar nerve resulting from positioning of the patient. Parsonage-turner syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis when a patient describes pain or weakness in the shoulder after joint arthroplasty.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = nerve
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