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1/24. Chronic demyelinating hypertrophic brachial plexus neuropathy.

    A patient with unilateral, painless, chronic progressive upper limb sensorimotor deficit showed electrophysiological evidence of a focal demyelinating neuropathy with almost complete conduction block across the brachial plexus. magnetic resonance imaging disclosed marked brachial plexus hypertrophy. Intravenous immunoglobulin led to fast and complete recovery, maintained by intermittent perfusions. Hypertrophic brachial plexus neuropathy can be a presentation of focal chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Objective and quantitative assessment of hand function is useful to evaluate treatment results and to optimize treatment regimens.
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keywords = neuropathy
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2/24. Spontaneous brachial plexus hemorrhage-case report.

    BACKGROUND: Shoulder hemorrhage resulting in brachial plexus neuropathy is a rare occurrence most often seen in cases of traumatic injury or anticoagulation therapy. We report a unique case of spontaneous brachial plexus hemorrhage. CASE DESCRIPTION: This is the first report of a spontaneous shoulder hemorrhage in which a 48-year-old jackhammer operator presented to the emergency department with a sudden onset of right shoulder pain and upper extremity pain and numbness. Imaging studies revealed a hematoma in the right axilla and chest wall. Without evidence of active bleeding or worsening neurologic deficit, this patient was treated conservatively with pain control and observation and eventually experienced a full recovery. Had there been persistent neurologic deficit, however, surgical evacuation would have been indicated. CONCLUSIONS: Cases of nerve compression caused by a hematoma should be analyzed on the basis of the severity of the neurologic deficit and not on the underlying cause of bleeding. Conservative treatment may be indicated in cases of mild or improving neurologic deficit, but regardless of its etiology, a hematoma that results in severe or worsening neurologic symptoms must be surgically evacuated to prevent permanent nerve damage.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = neuropathy
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3/24. Recurring brachial plexus neuropathy in a diabetic patient after shoulder surgery and continuous interscalene block.

    IMPLICATIONS: The performance of regional blockade on a patient with a preexisting neurologic condition or a history of neurologic complications after regional anesthesia is controversial. We present a case of recurring brachial plexus neuropathy in a diabetic patient after two shoulder procedures performed 4 mo apart. In both cases, the patient underwent intensive physical therapy with continuous postoperative interscalene analgesia.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = neuropathy
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4/24. Lesion of the anterior branch of axillary nerve in a patient with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies.

    We report the case of a 30-year-old woman affected by hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), who developed a painless left axillary neuropathy after sleeping on her left side, on a firm orthopaedic mattress, in her eighth month of pregnancy. electromyography (EMG) showing neurogenic signs in the left anterior and middle deltoid, and normal findings in the left teres minor, posterior deltoid and other proximal upper limb muscles, demonstrated that the lesion was at the level of the axillary anterior branch. A direct compression of this branch against the surgical neck of the humerus seems the most likely pathogenic mechanism. This is the first documented description of an axillary neuropathy in HNPP. knowledge of its possible occurrence may be important for prevention purposes.
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keywords = neuropathy
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5/24. Schwannoma of the suprascapular nerve presenting with atypical neuralgia: case report and review of the literature.

    Compressive lesions of the suprascapular nerve produce weakness and atrophy of the supra- and infraspinatus muscles and a poorly defined aching pain along the posterior aspect of the shoulder joint and the adjacent scapula. Entrapment neuropathy of the suprascapular nerve is fairly common whereas tumorous lesions are rare; among the latter ganglion cysts are frequently seen. An isolated solitary schwannoma of the suprascapular nerve presenting with atypical neuralgic pain is exceptional. The location of a schwannoma under the firm deep cervical fascia in the posterior triangle of the neck is implicated in the genesis of neuralgic pains mimicking the suprascapular entrapment syndrome. One such case is reported with discussion of the relevant clinical features.
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ranking = 0.14285830367924
keywords = neuropathy, deep
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6/24. brachial plexus neuropathy as unusual onset of diffuse neurolymphomatosis.

    We present a patient with a large B cell gastric lymphoma in total remission who, after 4 months, developed a fatal progressive peripheral neuropathy with an unusual early involvement of the right brachial plexus. No evidence of lymphoma was found at whole body computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging of the head, cervical spine and right brachial plexus, bone marrow biopsy or repeated lumbar punctures. The diagnosis of neurolymphomatosis was made only at postmortem examination.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = neuropathy
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7/24. Early onset of bilateral brachial plexopathy during mantle radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease.

    We report a case of brachial plexus neuropathy occurring in a 50-year-old man treated with standard mantle radiotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin's disease. A dose of 35 Gy in 20 fractions was given to the mantle field, following by a boost to the right side of the neck (8 Gy in four fractions). The onset of symptoms was early in the course of treatment and a gradual and almost full recovery was observed over 3 years after completion ofradiotherapy. The diagnosis was supported by electromyography. The temporal relationship of the radiotherapy and the onset of the brachial plexus neuropathy suggests a cause and effect, but this association is rarely reported after mantle radiotherapy. We review the aetiology of this condition and postulate possible mechanisms in this patient.
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ranking = 0.28571428571429
keywords = neuropathy
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8/24. brachial plexus involvement as the only expression of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies.

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal-dominant focal neuropathy characterized by recurrent entrapment neuropathies. Single members of families with HNPP and brachial plexus involvement have been reported previously. We describe a family with three affected members and in which the only symptom of entrapment was recurrent brachial plexopathy. The diagnosis of HNPP in this family was confirmed by both neurophysiological methods and dna analysis. The distinction between HNPP and hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy is discussed.
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ranking = 0.85714285714286
keywords = neuropathy
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9/24. Intraneural nerve metastasis with multiple mononeuropathies.

    Although cancer is a frequent condition, neoplastic involvement of the peripheral nervous system is rare. The mechanisms are heterogeneous and include lesions within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space, local invasion (e.g. brachial plexus), compression, rarely direct infiltration, perineurial spread and even rarer intranerval metastasis. A 47-year-old woman had been treated for a carcinoid 10 years earlier and had received axillar irradiation. At presentation she suffered from weakness of the biceps brachii and was experiencing pain radiating from the axilla into the forearm and thumb. MR scans of the brachial plexus were negative and her symptoms were primarily considered to stem from a postradiation brachial plexopathy, Because of increasing pain, the brachial plexus was explored and a metastasis in the left musculocutaneous nerve was resected. Several months later, numbness and pain appeared in the ulnar nerve and another intrafascicular metastasis in the ulnar nerve was discovered. Resection with preservation of remaining fascicles was performed. This rare case report demonstrates that multiple mononeuropathies, resembling multiplex neuropathy, may be caused by intranerval metastasis.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = neuropathy
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10/24. Compressive neuropathy of the brachial plexus and long thoracic nerve: a rare complication of heparin anticoagulation.

    We present a case of a 69-year-old woman who developed brachial plexopathy and long thoracic nerve palsy secondary to compression from a hematoma while receiving heparin therapy for the treatment of a stroke. The patient was treated conservatively with discontinuation of heparin and had complete resolution of her compressive neuropathy. This is the first report of a patient with long thoracic nerve palsy with a brachial plexopathy complicating anticoagulation. We review the literature on hematoma-induced compressive neuropathies and treatment options. Our review concludes by emphasizing the importance of clinical judgment in determining the best therapeutic modality.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = neuropathy
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