Cases reported "Brain Abscess"

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1/86. Nocardial infection in a renal transplant recipient on tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil.

    Infection with nocardia spp. is an uncommon but important cause of morbidity and mortality in organ transplant recipients. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis against urinary tract infection and pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in these patients usually prevents nocardial infection also. We report the case of a patient on tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil who developed drug-induced diabetes mellitus followed by nocardial brain infection. This infection occurred despite conventional cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. physicians should be aware that newer, more potent and more diabetogenic immunosuppressive regimens may increase the risk of opportunistic infections such as nocardiosis, even in the presence of "adequate" antimicrobial preventive measures.
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2/86. Successful treatment of brainstem abscess with stereotactic aspiration.

    BACKGROUND: Brainstem abscess is an uncommon condition associated with a high mortality. We report a case of brainstem abscess in a 51-year-old female with a pulmonary arteriovenous fistula that was cured after appropriate antibiotic therapy following stereotactic aspiration. The value of stereotactic aspiration in the management of brainstem abscess is documented with a review of the relevant literature. CASE REPORT: A 51-year-old female with a pulmonary arteriovenous fistula suffered fever, diplopia and weakness on the right side. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain showed a large cystic mass with ring-like enhancement in the brainstem. A diagnosis of brainstem abscess as a complication of pulmonary arteriovenous fistula was made. MR imaging-guided stereotactic exploration was carried out via the suboccipital transcerebellar approach and the pathogen of the brainstem abscess was identified. The brainstem abscess was cured after treatment employing antibiotics to which the pathogen was sensitive. CONCLUSIONS: Stereotactic aspiration is an effective procedure for brainstem abscesses. This procedure is less invasive than open surgery and can be performed even in patients in poor general condition.
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3/86. brain abscess as a complication of orthognathic surgery: diagnosis, management, and pathophysiology.

    We present what we believe is the first case of a brain abscess resulting from orthognathic surgery reported in the literature. Although recent advances have significantly improved the treatment of brain abscesses, delays in diagnosis lead to persistent high rates of mortality. Often, the initial symptoms are vague and nonspecific. Commonly, the neurologic status of the patient deteriorates significantly before suspicion is raised and a CT scan is obtained. This case report is intended to benefit all practitioners who participate in the perioperative care of orthognathic surgery patients. Although the occurrence of a brain abscess is rare, it is hoped that this case will heighten the awareness of clinicians to this potential complication.
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4/86. Pituitary abscess secondary to isolated sphenoid sinusitis.

    Intracranial complications from isolated sphenoid sinusitis are rare but nevertheless demonstrate both a high morbidity and mortality. We herein report a case of a pituitary abscess secondary to sphenoid sinusitis in a 12-year-old boy. This patient presented with an acute onset of moderate fever and headache, followed by progressive right ptosis. An emergency endoscopic endonasal sphenoidotomy with sinus drainage and postoperative antibiotic therapy resulted in a satisfactory recovery.
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5/86. Successful treatment of aspergillus brain abscess in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Cerebral aspergillosis carries a high mortality in immunocompromised patients. However, favorable outcome can be achieved by the prolonged use of antifungal agents and the maintenance of adequate drug levels. The authors report a 2-year-old girl who developed an aspergillus brain abscess during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Predisposing factors for the fungal infection and details of the antifungal therapy are described. Prolonged treatment with AmBisome and 5-flucytosine successfully eradicated the lesion, but the girl's antileukemic therapy was compromised due to the infection. She developed a central nervous system and bone marrow relapse 9 and 15 months, respectively, after the initial presentation. The report emphasizes the need for further consideration of effective, long-term antifungal prophylaxis and a careful balance between aggressive treatment for severe infection and antileukemic therapy.
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6/86. brain abscess and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: a report of three cases.

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasis (HHT) has long been viewed as a rare disease which is not usually associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report three patients with HHT who developed cerebral abscesses secondary to pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM).
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7/86. brain abscess as the presenting feature of melioidosis.

    central nervous system involvement in melioidosis is rare and there are only a few reports of the causative organism, burkholderia pseudomallei, causing a brain abscess. We report a patient who presented to us with a brain abscess due to this organism and emphasize the need for a high degree of suspicion for this disease in tropical countries and treatment with the appropriate antibiotics, as the mortality associated with this disease is very high.
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8/86. salmonella enteritidis brain abscess: case report and review.

    Intracranial infections are unusual manifestations of salmonellosis. Even with adequate medical and surgical interventions these infections are often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case of brain abscess caused by salmonella enteritidis associated with a brain neoplasm and review previous reports in the literature.
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9/86. brain abscess in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: case report and literature review.

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), or Osler-Weber-Rendu disease, affects multiple organ systems. brain abscess is a potential complication, and this disease carries a high mortality. In the setting of HHT the abscess most likely results from paradoxical septic emboli or bacterial seeding of an ischemic portion of the brain after paradoxical sterile emboli. brain abscess is the diagnosis that must be ruled out in patients with HHT presenting with new onset neurologic symptoms. The clinician can be misled by seemingly benign and nonspecific symptoms, signs, and laboratory test results. Appropriate diagnostic imaging with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the head is mandatory. We present a case of brain abscess in a patient with HHT presenting to the Emergency Department. The review of the literature deals with the pathophysiology and manifestations of HHT with particular focus on the pathologic and clinical features, and management of cerebral abscess in this setting. Differences between patients with brain abscess with or without HHT are highlighted.
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10/86. sepsis and multiple brain abscesses caused by salmonella paratyphi b in an infant: successful treatment with sulbactam-ampicillin and surgical drainage.

    Abscess formation by Salmonella species is an uncommon but significant manifestation of salmonellosis, because this type of infection has high morbidity and mortality rates and is a potential nosocomial hazard. In infants, history of consumption of contaminated water should be especially quired. We report a case who had sepsis and multiple brain abscesses due to salmonella paratyphi b and who responded to sulbactam-ampicillin (SAM) therapy. sulbactam-ampicillin combination may be preferable due to its immunomodulator effect.
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