Cases reported "Brain Abscess"

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1/87. Strategy for 3-D computed tomography diagnosis and treatment of small pulmonary arteriovenous fistula.

    In a patient with left hemianopsia, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intracranial space-occupying lesion in the right occipital region. A cerebral abscess was removed at craniotomy. Enhanced pulmonary CT showed a small coin lesion in the peripheral lingula. and at 3-D CT two nidi with feeding arteries and draining veins were seen, indicating pulmonary arteriovenous fistula. Lingular segmentectomy was performed.
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2/87. Spontaneously infected cephalohematoma: case report and review of the literature.

    Spontaneously infected cephalohematomas are rare occurrences; only five cases have been reported previously. Uninfected cephalohematomas are common and usually resolve without treatment. However, physicians should be aware that cephalohematomas are potential sites for infection and may require aspiration for diagnosis and treatment. Untreated infected cephalohematomas may lead to osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, or subdural empyema. We present a case of a spontaneously infected cephalohematoma with an associated osteomyelitis which was successfully managed with drainage and long-term antibiotics. A review of the literature is also presented.
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keywords = subdural
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3/87. Cerebral abscess and thrombophilia in pregnancy. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral abscess in pregnancy is a rare event, with the etiology not well described. We present such a case in association with genetic thrombophilia. CASE: A 36-year-old primigravida with a prior history of bilateral popliteal vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism presented in early gestation with right hemiparesis, aphasia, disseminated intravascular coagulation and a space-occupying lesion in the left temporal lobe. Stereotactic biopsy confirmed the presence of an abscess. The patient also had a homozygous methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase mutation (C677T), protein s deficiency and lupus anticoagulant, all of which possibly contributed to the thrombosis, infarct, infection and abscess. She was successfully treated with low-molecular-weight heparin and antibiotics and had a term vaginal delivery. CONCLUSION: Recently genetic thrombophilia was reported in association with various complications of pregnancy, but it has never before been described as occurring with a cerebral abscess.
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4/87. Intracranial vasculitis and multiple abscesses in a pregnant woman.

    Cerebral vasculitis is an unusual disorder with many causes. Infectious causes of cerebral vasculitis are predominantly bacterial or viral in nature. Purulent bacterial vasculitis is most often a complication of severe bacterial meningitis. The patient is a 25-year-old African American female, 25 weeks pregnant, who presented to the neurology service after a consult and referral from an outside hospital. She had a 1-month history of right sixth nerve palsy. Initial workup included a negative lumber puncture and a noninfused magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three days later, the patient developed right-sided migraine headaches and right third nerve palsy. The angiogram revealed diffuse irregularity and narrowing of the petrous, cavernous, and supraclinoid portions of the internal carotid and right middle cerebral arteries. Shortly thereafter, an MRI examination revealed diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement and abscess and a right parietal subdural empyema. Infectious vasculitis secondary to purulent meningitis has a rapidly progressive course and presents with cranial nerve palsy with involvement of the cavernous sinus. Although the association of this disease with pregnancy has not been established, it should be recognized that the early imaging studies may be negative or discordant and follow-up imaging might be necessary.
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keywords = subdural
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5/87. Intracranial complications of frontal sinusitis in children: Pott's puffy tumor revisited.

    The objective of the present study is to describe the diagnosis and treatment of intracranial complications of frontal sinusitis (Pott's puffy tumor) in a series of pediatric patients at our institution. A rare entity, Pott's puffy tumor has been reported in only 21 pediatric cases in the literature of the antibiotic era. The hospital records and radiographic files at Rainbow Babies and Childrens Hospital, Cleveland, ohio, USA, over the previous 16 years were retrospectively reviewed in a search for patients with the diagnosis of Pott's puffy tumor, defined as scalp swelling and associated intracranial infection. There were 6 male patients and 1 female patient. Ages ranged from 11 to 18 years (median 14.5 years). Intracranial infections consisted of epidural abscess in 5 patients, subdural empyema in 4 and brain abscess in 1. Intraoperative cultures grew anaerobic organisms in 1 patient, microaerophilic streptococcus in 5 patients, klebsiella species in 1 patient and streptococcus pneumoniae in another. All patients presented with frontal scalp swelling, and other common symptoms included headache, fever, nasal drainage and frontal sinus tenderness. Five patients were treated with antibiotics prior to their presentation. Four patients presented with neurologic decompensation characterized by varying degrees of hemiparesis, obtundation, pupillary dilatation or aphasia. All patients underwent craniotomy and evacuation of the intracranial infection. Even severely impaired patients demonstrated full neurologic recovery. Despite the widespread use of antibiotics, neurosurgical complications of sinusitis continue to occur. A high degree of suspicion, along with prompt neurosurgical intervention and the use of appropriate antibiotics, can result in favorable outcomes in even the sickest patients.
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keywords = subdural
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6/87. Interhemispheric subdural empyema--case report.

    We report a case of interhemispheric subdural empyema following a meningoencephalitis. Ten days after the beginning of his illness a CT scan showed a left interhemispheric subdural empyema with a low density collection, a faintly enhancing rim, multiple very small cortical abscesses and brain edema. The empyema was successfully treated by the direct introduction of a catheter into the left interhemispheric subdural space via a single posterior frontal parasagittal burr hole, irrigation with saline, aspiration of the empyema, and removal of the catheter at the end of operation.
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keywords = subdural, space
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7/87. Intracranial salmonella infections: meningitis, subdural collections and brain abscess. A series of six surgically managed cases with follow-up results.

    Focal intracranial infections due to Salmonella are rare. So far, around 80 cases have been reported in the world literature. The authors present their experience of 6 cases of intracranial salmonella infections, mainly subdural empyema in 5 and effusion in 1. In 1 case, subdural empyema was bilateral, and in another case, there was an associated brain abscess. Positive blood cultures and positive Widal tests were noticed in 2 patients each. early diagnosis and prompt evacuation of subdural collections and brain abscess and antibiotic therapy lead to satisfactory results. This study suggests that a high index of suspicion, early diagnosis and quick evacuation lead to success; this point is highlighted with the help of a review of the literature.
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ranking = 3061.082895279
keywords = subdural
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8/87. New-onset psychogenic seizures after intracranial neurosurgery.

    BACKGROUND: patients with physical brain abnormalities have an increased risk of developing psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Here we describe patients who developed PNES after intracranial neurosurgery for indications other than the control of refractory epileptic seizures and explore whether neurosurgical intervention is at risk factor for PNES. METHOD: We searched the database of 372 patients diagnosed with PNES at our department over the last 10 years and identified 17 patients (4.6%) in whom PNES first started after intracranial neurosurgery. Surgical procedures included the complete or partial resection of a meningioma, AV malformation, cavernoma, plexus papilloma, neurinoma, astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, dysontogenetic cyst, the drainage of a brain abscess and removal of a subdural hematoma. PNES were documented by ictal video-EEG, ictal EEG, or ictal observation and examination in all cases. The diagnosis of additional epileptic seizures were confirmed by ictal EEG/video-EEG, or made on the basis of a clinical assessment by an experienced epileptologist. FINDINGS: Five patients had purely psychogenic postoperative seizure disorders, twelve had epileptic and psychogenic attacks. Median age at neurosurgery was 32 years (range 5-54), median latency between surgery and onset of PNES was 1 year (range 0-17 years). INTERPRETATION: PNES may develop after intracranial neurosurgery undertaken for other indications than the control of refractory epileptic seizures. Younger patients with a history of pre-operative psychiatric problems or epileptic seizures and surgical complications may be at higher risk. A diagnosis of PNES should be considered in patients who develop refractory seizures after neurosurgery.
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keywords = subdural
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9/87. Successful treatment of listerial brain abscess: a case report and literature review.

    Listerial brain abscess is extremely rare; only two cases have been reported in japan. We encountered a female patient with immunoblastic lymphadenopathy, who developed listerial brain abscess after 8 years of treatment with antineoplastic agents and corticosteroids. Brain MRI revealed multiple space occupying lesions, suggesting abscesses which were possibly caused by hematogenous spread of the bacteria. Immediate blood culture enabled early diagnosis, and she entered into complete remission with high-dose ampicillin. blood culture and brain imaging seem to play a crucial role in making an early diagnosis, and the administration of high dose of antibiotics is recommended for improvement of this disease.
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10/87. MR demonstration of brain abscess rupture into the subarachnoid space and its possible implication in management.

    BACKGROUND: rupture of brain abscess into the subarachnoid space as a cause of meningitis is rare. early diagnosis improves the outcome. There is no previous report of MR demonstration of rupture of brain abscess into the subarachnoid space. CASE DESCRIPTION: Two young adults with chronic suppurative otitis media presenting with signs of increased intracranial pressure and meningeal irritation underwent magnetic resonance imaging, which showed brain abscess with evidence of rupture into the subarachnoid space and meningitis. This helped in early diagnosis and aggressive management. CONCLUSION: In cases of brain abscess where meningitis is suspected clinically, documentation of rupture of the abscess into the subarachnoid space will help in avoiding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination that may be disastrous in these patients who already have increased intracranial pressure.
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