Cases reported "Brain Concussion"

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1/4. Radiographical investigations of organic lesions of the hypothalamus in patients suffering from neurogenic pulmonary edema due to serious intracranial diseases: relationship between radiographical findings and outcome of patients suffering from neurogenic pulmonary edema.

    Radiographical investigations of the hypothalamus by computerized tomography (CT) have rarely been performed despite the fact that the damage to the hypothalamus owing to serious intracranial organic diseases may cause neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE). We presented 22 consecutive cases of patients suffering from NPE caused by serious intracranial organic diseases and investigated the relationship between NPE and abnormal radiographical findings of the hypothalamus. In 11 cases, organic lesions were noted in the hypothalami and 10 of these patients died of NPE (91.0%). In contrast, of the remaining 11 cases without significant radiographical findings of organic lesions in the hypothalami, only 2 patients were lost (18.2%). In general, various factors including systemic ones are considered to contribute to the prognosis of the patients suffering NPEs caused by serious intracranial diseases. It was concluded that hypothalamic damage was not always found by radiograph in patients with NPE due to critical intracranial diseases, but once abnormal findings in their hypothalamus of these patients were noted, their prognosis would become significantly poor (p < 0.05).
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2/4. Visual dysfunction in closed head injury.

    Damage to the visual system often occurs after head injury. Clinical manifestations of visual system dysfunction may be monocular or binocular, and may include reduced visual acuity, visual field loss, and in some cases complete blindness. This paper reviews and updates nine cases of visual dysfunction secondary to closed head trauma. Pathophysiology, prognosis and optometric co-management with neurology and neuro-ophthalmology are highlighted. Optometric roles in visual rehabilitation and the prevention of head injury are addressed.
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3/4. Alpha coma.

    Six personal cases of alpha coma are reported: 3 following a cerebrovascular accident and 3 resulting from cerebral concussion. Two patients survived. On the basis of differences in pathogenesis, EEG characteristics and prognosis, the following classification is proposed: alpha coma resulting from brain stem vascular accident; cerebral concussion; diffuse cerebral hypoxia; drug intoxication. The clinical course of each of the classes of alpha coma is outlined. The alpha coma state is not restricted to cases with structural brain stem lesions c.q. lesions of the pontomesencephalic region.
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4/4. Unilateral morbus Purtscher with poor visual outcome.

    Two cases are presented, one with a pure cranial compression injury, the other mainly with chest trauma. Both patients noted immediate unilateral blindness. Vision did not improve in either within four months. fluorescein angiography was performed and showed arteriolar as well as venous damage, with occlusion of arterioles and venules. As the impact in morbus Purtscher is usually very brief, reflux cannot explain the fundus changes. More likely a pressure wave is the cause of vessel damage with subsequent infiltration of blood, or plasma, into the wall of the vessel and obliteration of the lumen; it is also a cause of rupture of capillaries and hemorrhage. In traumatic asphyxia, on the contrary, a sustained force leads to reflux of blood and massive congestion with subsequent vessel damage and diapedesis. The prognosis in morbus Purtscher is often poor.
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