Cases reported "Brain Damage, Chronic"

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1/16. "Pure word deafness": implications for assessment and management in communication disorder--a report of two cases.

    In "pure word deafness" after acquired brain injury, the auditory comprehension of words is much more impaired than other aspects of communication or cognition. Two cases are presented, one early and one late presentation. The key to diagnosis of communication disorders is to remember to assess all six basic aspects of language function and to be vigilant for coexisting diagnoses that can complicate such assessment (especially psychiatric diagnoses). rehabilitation management of impaired communication should emphasize the teaching of specific coping mechanisms to the patient and to all others who are involved.
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keywords = communication
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2/16. 'Insuring' a correct differential diagnosis--a 'forensic' collaborative experience.

    Mr. J was referred to a speech and language therapist (SLT) by a consultant psychiatrist. He had sustained an industrial accident which he claimed was responsible for a range of problems which included a speech and language problem. Some three years after his accident, he brought an action for damages arising out of the accident. His solicitor, on the recommendation of the consultant psychiatrist, contacted the SLT requesting his views as to whether Mr. J's speech difficulties were due to the injuries sustained and requesting recommendations for further treatment. The SLT saw Mr. J and concluded that he had problems at all communication levels, the greatest being an articulatory impairment. Some reports suggested a psychological basis for his problems and others, including the psychiatrists', suggested an organic basis.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = communication
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3/16. ventriculostomy-related cerebral hemorrhages after endovascular aneurysm treatment.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent evidence suggests that endovascular treatment of acutely ruptured aneurysms is equivalent, if not superior, to surgical treatment. Not all patients who undergo endovascular treatment do well, however. We have identified ventriculostomy-related hemorrhage to be a potential source of morbidity and mortality. methods: Prospectively gathered data on patients (n = 51) admitted to a hospital for the endovascular treatment of acutely ruptured aneurysms during a 2.5-year period was analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients had drains inserted, and three suffered symptomatic ventriculostomy-related cerebral hemorrhages. Two of the three patients were being treated with heparin, one of whom also received clopidogrel, and the third was being treated with low molecular weight heparin at the time. The latter had a normal platelet count, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time. All cerebral hemorrhages were deemed to have occurred as a result of drain manipulation. CONCLUSION: The risk of hemorrhage must be considered when using anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy in patients requiring ventriculostomy. Interventionalists must not only work closely with neurosurgeons when it is anticipated that a ventriculostomy may be needed but also ensure that there is good communication with the neurosurgical team during the postprocedural period.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = communication
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4/16. Restoration of intelligible speech 13 years post-head injury.

    This case study demonstrates the efficacy of treatment of a patient with severe dysarthria long after the accepted period of 'neurological recovery'. A physiological approach to treatment was utilized and resulted in a change from non-verbal communication to functional verbal communication.
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ranking = 0.28571428571429
keywords = communication
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5/16. Communication abilities in a case of rett syndrome.

    The communication skills in a 4-year-old girl with rett syndrome (RS) prior to, during and after the characteristic regression period are presented. The case study serves to provide a detailed description of the typical communication skills seen in this population, even though this child must be considered an atypical case of RS. The case study emphasizes the need for the assessment and treatment of communication skills in cases with RS to focus on the intentionality and functionality of the child's communication.
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ranking = 0.57142857142857
keywords = communication
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6/16. The use of discourse analyses for the evaluation of higher level traumatically brain-injured adults.

    Higher level traumatically brain-injured (TBI) adults often present a challenge in assessment as well as in the measurement of recovery. Traditional clinical measures of language abilities have not been adequate to identify and describe precisely what is deviant about their communication. Assessment has generally consisted of aphasia tests and measures of general cognitive abilities. Although such measures may be sensitive to deficits in lower level TBI patients or those in the early stages of recovery, their usefulness with higher functioning patients is questionable due to the often subtle nature of their residual communication problems. An overview of discourse analyses is presented and recent applications of these procedures with TBI patients reviewed.
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ranking = 0.28571428571429
keywords = communication
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7/16. MRI findings in the parents and siblings of specifically language-impaired boys.

    Four families that include a specifically language-impaired (SLI) boy were studied to test the hypothesis that developmental language disorders are biologically transmittable. A majority of the parents of the SLI boys had experienced communication difficulty (i.e., difficulty with speech, language, or academic skills) as children. Evidence of communication difficulty was paired on an individual basis with neuroanatomical data obtained through quantitative analysis of magnetic resonance imaging scans. Atypical perisylvian asymmetries were documented in a majority of the parents and were frequently associated with a history of communication difficulty. Atypical perisylvian asymmetries and disordered language skills were also documented for siblings of SLI boys. These findings suggest that atypical perisylvian asymmetries reflect a transmittable, biological factor that places some families at risk for language impairment.
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ranking = 0.42857142857143
keywords = communication
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8/16. Unexpected recovery of functional communication following a prolonged period of mutism post-head injury.

    A case is presented of a seven-year-old female who showed an unexpected recovery of functional communication skills following a prolonged period of traumatic mutism subsequent to a severe closed head injury. The patient initially presented as comatose. A period of mutism subsequent to the coma extended for ten months. Following this protracted period of mutism the child demonstrated rapid and unexpected recovery of functional communication skills, despite the persistence of higher level language deficits. The findings of a neurological assessment, neuroradiological assessment and battery of speech/language tests are described. The present case is discussed in light of the existing literature on recovery from paediatric head trauma.
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ranking = 0.85714285714286
keywords = communication
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9/16. Children with a history of acquired aphasia: residual language and academic impairments.

    Fifteen children and adolescents with a history of acquired aphasia were administered a battery of language and academic tests, 1-10 years postonset. As a group, these children performed significantly more poorly than non-brain-injured subjects on the language measures, with deficits in word, sentence, and paragraph comprehension; naming; oral production of complex syntactic constructions; and word fluency. One particular language deficit or cluster of deficits did not characterize the group as a whole. For individual brain-injured subjects, language deficits ranged from no or only mild impairment to significant language deficits. All brain-injured subjects were functional verbal communicators at the time of the study; that is, all were oral and primarily used grammatical sentences as their means of communication. Academic difficulties were characteristic of this population. Two thirds of the brain-injured group were receiving academic assistance of some kind at the time of the study. Poor performance on arithmetic calculations was typical. The brain-injured group was heterogeneous with regard to age at onset, etiology, extent of damage, length of recovery, and outcome profiles. Careful and comprehensive assessment of a range of language and academic abilities is essential to adequately identify needs and appropriate intervention strategies for this population.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = communication
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10/16. Prosthetic communication device.

    A code-generating and display system is described which permits an individual who has lost vocal voluntary motor ability to communicate. The subject sustained severe brain damage in an automobile accident which left him without the power of speech or any significant motor ability, although he is not by definition quadriplegic. He lacks reliable control of eye blink, and the oral movements associated with sucking and blowing are severely impaired; thus, the usual foundations upon which prosthetic devices for quadriplegic patients are designed were not applicable in this case. The subject is confined to a bed, wheelchair, or an exercise table. The system described here has provided the subject with a simple and reliable means of communicating with his family and it permits him to communicate with persons who do not know the Morse code.
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ranking = 0.57142857142857
keywords = communication
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