Cases reported "Brain Damage, Chronic"

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1/820. apomorphine and levodopa challenge in patients with a focal midbrain lesion.

    Three patients who presented with parkinsonian signs resulting from a focal midbrain lesion are reported. In all patients parkinsonian features occurred acutely and improved following acute challenge with apomorphine but not with levodopa. Remission of parkinsonian signs occurred spontaneously to a different degree. Inconsistent clinical response following administration of levodopa has been well documented in patients with focal midbrain lesions associated with parkinsonian signs; however, the efficacy of apomorphine has not been tested before. Anatomic or etiologic features do not allow us to predict in which cases parkinsonian signs secondary to a midbrain lesion would respond to levodopa or to dopamine agonists. A trial with apomorphine is warranted in all such cases. ( info)

2/820. Confabulation and delusional misidentification: a four year follow-up study.

    We describe a patient, AZ, who showed, in addition to an amnesic syndrome which eventually improved, longstanding confabulation and delusional misidentification following bilateral frontal and right temporal post-traumatic lesions. Confabulation appeared in personal recollections and on long-term verbal memory testing. Misidentification concerned mainly his wife and house. During the four year follow-up AZ's confabulation progressively shrinked so as to become restricted to verbal memory tasks. By contrast, misidentification persisted. General semantic memory was unimpaired throughout, while performance on frontal tests was initially poor and partly improved in time. We argue that confabulation and misidentification, though often intermingled and occurring after similar lesion pattern, should be considered as different neuropsychological entities. ( info)

3/820. Impaired declarative memory for emotional material following bilateral amygdala damage in humans.

    Everyday experience suggests that highly emotional events are often the most memorable, an observation supported by psychological and pharmacological studies in humans. Although studies in animals have shown that nondeclarative emotional memory (behaviors associated with emotional situations) may be impaired by lesions of the amygdala, little is known about the neural underpinnings of emotional memory in humans, especially in regard to declarative memory (memory for facts that can be assessed verbally). We investigated the declarative memory of two rare patients with selective bilateral amygdala damage. Both subjects showed impairments in long-term declarative memory for emotionally arousing material. The data support the hypothesis that the human amygdala normally enhances acquisition of declarative knowledge regarding emotionally arousing stimuli. ( info)

4/820. Folinic acid-responsive neonatal seizures.

    We report three cases of folinic acid-responsive intractable neonatal seizures. All patients were born at term following normal gestation and delivery. In the first infant, seizures began on the 5th day of life and were unresponsive to phenobarbital, pyridoxine, and valproate, but stopped within 24 hours of initiation of folinic acid treatment at the age of 6 months. Her sibling had died at age 6 months with intractable seizures. In the second infant, seizures began in the 2nd hour of life. These were initially controlled with phenobarbital; however, at 3 months of age she developed status epilepticus refractory to anticonvulsants, steroids, and pyridoxine and she required repeated induction of pentobarbital coma. seizures stopped within 24 hours of starting folinic acid. seizures and encephalopathy were noted in the third infant on the 2nd day of life. These were controlled with phenobarbital, but at 8 weeks of age seizures recurred and were difficult to control despite the addition of phenytoin. Immediately after folinic acid was initiated the seizures stopped. Breakthrough seizures in all patients have responded to increases in folinic acid; two of the three remain on standard anticonvulsants. All patients have global developmental delay. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging in the second patient shows diffuse atrophy, and in the third patient shows increased signal on T2 images in the white matter of the frontal and parietal lobes. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from these patients using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection has consistently revealed an as-yet unidentified compound, which can be used as a marker for this condition. We suggest that cerebrospinal fluid be analyzed for the presence of this compound and a trial of folinic acid be considered in neonates with unexplained early onset intractable seizures. ( info)

5/820. "Pure word deafness": implications for assessment and management in communication disorder--a report of two cases.

    In "pure word deafness" after acquired brain injury, the auditory comprehension of words is much more impaired than other aspects of communication or cognition. Two cases are presented, one early and one late presentation. The key to diagnosis of communication disorders is to remember to assess all six basic aspects of language function and to be vigilant for coexisting diagnoses that can complicate such assessment (especially psychiatric diagnoses). rehabilitation management of impaired communication should emphasize the teaching of specific coping mechanisms to the patient and to all others who are involved. ( info)

6/820. Impairment of social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex.

    The long-term consequences of early prefrontal cortex lesions occurring before 16 months were investigated in two adults. As is the case when such damage occurs in adulthood, the two early-onset patients had severely impaired social behavior despite normal basic cognitive abilities, and showed insensitivity to future consequences of decisions, defective autonomic responses to punishment contingencies and failure to respond to behavioral interventions. Unlike adult-onset patients, however, the two patients had defective social and moral reasoning, suggesting that the acquisition of complex social conventions and moral rules had been impaired. Thus early-onset prefrontal damage resulted in a syndrome resembling psychopathy. ( info)

7/820. Postoperative brainstem high intensity is correlated with poor outcomes for patients with spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage.

    OBJECTIVE: The outcomes for patients with cerebellar hemorrhage are thought to be influenced by anatomic damage to the brainstem. In this study, we investigated the magnetic resonance imaging findings in the brainstem, to examine the relationship between the degree of brainstem damage and the outcomes for patients with spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage who are in poor-grade condition. methods: The results for 31 patients with spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage, with Glasgow coma Scale scores of 8 or less at admission, who underwent magnetic resonance imaging examinations were reviewed. All patients underwent surgical intervention. The patients were divided into two groups according to their glasgow outcome scale scores at the time of discharge, i.e., patients who experienced good recoveries or exhibited moderate disabilities (Group I, n = 8) and patients who exhibited severe disabilities, were in a persistent vegetative state, or had died (Group II, n = 23). We investigated obliteration of the fourth ventricle and the perimesencephalic cistern and the presence of hydrocephalus in initial computed tomographic scans and the presence of areas of high signal intensity in the brainstem in T2-weighted images. RESULTS: Eight patients experienced good outcomes, and 23 patients experienced poor outcomes. The overall mortality rate was 32.3%. There were no significant differences between groups with respect to computed tomographic findings such as hematoma size, but the incidence of high signal intensities in the pons and midbrain in T2-weighted images for Group II was significantly higher than that for Group I (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: magnetic resonance imaging clearly demonstrated brainstem damage, and high signal intensity in the brainstem was a significant prognostic factor for determining outcomes for patients with spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage who were in poor-grade condition. ( info)

8/820. Encephalopathy as the presenting symptom of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    In recent years, encephalopathy has increasingly been recognized as a complication of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. It can begin abruptly as a stroke-like event, acute seizures, or confusion, or as an insidious decline in cognitive function. Most reported cases have been on adult patients, although this encephalopathy does affect children as well. This form of encephalopathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children and adults with unexplained neurologic deterioration. We describe the case of a child in whom acute encephalopathy was the presenting symptom of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. ( info)

9/820. A paradoxical improvement of misreaching in optic ataxia: new evidence for two separate neural systems for visual localization.

    We tested a patient (A. T.) with bilateral brain damage to the parietal lobes, whose resulting 'optic ataxia' causes her to make large pointing errors when asked to locate single light emitting diodes presented in her visual field. We report here that, unlike normal individuals, A. T.'s pointing accuracy improved when she was required to wait for 5 s before responding. This counter-intuitive result is interpreted as reflecting the very brief time-scale on which visuomotor control systems in the superior parietal lobe operate. When an immediate response was required, A. T.'s damaged visuomotor system caused her to make large errors; but when a delay was required, a different, more flexible, visuospatial coding system--presumably relatively intact in her brain--came into play, resulting in much more accurate responses. The data are consistent with a dual processing theory whereby motor responses made directly to visual stimuli are guided by a dedicated system in the superior parietal and premotor cortices, while responses to remembered stimuli depend on perceptual processing and may thus crucially involve processing within the temporal neocortex. ( info)

10/820. Bilateral opercular syndrome caused by perinatal difficulties.

    Four patients with pseudobulbar palsy, mental retardation and various degrees of speech disturbance associated with perinatal difficulties are described as having an acquired type of opercular syndrome. There were two patients with fetal bradycardia and three with subarachnoid haemorrhage and neonatal convulsion. magnetic resonance imaging revealed cortical atrophy in the bilateral opercula with some signal abnormalities in the underlying white matter in common. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) also confirmed the presence of hypoperfusion in the regions. Although the opercular syndrome is a clinical entity with a multitude of underlying pathologies, perinatal difficulties could be an important cause of the acquired type. ( info)
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