Cases reported "Brain Death"

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1/100. Auditory brain-stem responses in brain death.

    Auditory brain-stem responses were measured by far-field recording techniques in 27 patients fulfilling the criteria of brain death. The responses were either absent or consisted of the presence of just the initial component (Wave I). Wave I, when present, was of normal amplitude but prolonged in latency. Four patients were followed over several days from a state of coma with evidence of preserved brain-stem and cerebral functions to a clinical state compatible with brain death. Auditory brain-stem responses were initially intact and then showed a decrease in amplitude and a prolongation of latency of the later components until finally Wave I was alone. Auditory brain-stem responses are an objective measure of one of the sensory pathways traversing the brain-stem and can be used to evaluate the functional states of the brain-stem in patients in whom the question of brain death has been raised.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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2/100. Cerebral arteriovenous malformation in pregnancy: presentation and neurologic, obstetric, and ethical significance.

    Cerebral arteriovenous malformations infrequently complicate pregnancy. We sought to determine the neurologic, obstetric, and ethical significance of such malformations. We present the clinical course of 2 pregnant women with arteriovenous malformations who experienced cerebral hemorrhage and a loss of capacity for decision making. We also review the neurologic and obstetric significance of arteriovenous malformations in pregnancy. Various treatment options with concern for pregnancy and the prognosis for arteriovenous malformations are outlined. The ethical issues involved for pregnant patients whose decisional capacity is compromised as a result of cerebral injury are explored. A review of persistent vegetative state and brain death (death by neurologic criteria) occurring in pregnancy allows us to explore many issues that are applicable to decisionally incapacitated but physiologically functioning pregnant women. We outline a document, the purpose of which is to obtain advance directives from pregnant women regarding end-of-life decisions and to appoint a surrogate decision maker. We believe that evaluation and treatment of the arteriovenous malformation may be undertaken without regard for the pregnancy and that the pregnancy should progress without concern for the arteriovenous malformation.
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ranking = 2
keywords = cerebral
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3/100. diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in brain death.

    BACKGROUND; Traditionally the diagnosis of brain death is established on the basis of a combination of clinical signs and paraclinical methods. diffusion-weighted MRI is a new method sensitive to cerebral ischemia. Its value in brain death has not been demonstrated until now. CASE DESCRIPTION: A patient was referred to MRI with suspicion of a brain stem stroke. Echo-planar whole-brain, multislice, diffusion-weighted MRI was performed in addition to conventional sequences and MR angiography sequences. In addition to the extensive bilateral hyperintensities observed on T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted MRI showed diffuse hyperintensities involving both hemispheres as well as a severe drop in the apparent diffusion coefficient in both affected hemispheres. There was also transtentorial herniation with compression of the brain stem as well as absence of flow voids on the T2-weighted images and absence of intracranial vessels on MR angiography. On the basis of the clinical and imaging findings, it was concluded that the patient was in a state of brain death. The patient died the same day. CONCLUSIONS: With the use of new fast techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, now MRI can not only display anatomic changes associated with severe brain suffering but can also demonstrate ultrastructural changes secondary to brain death and differentiate them from edematous changes seen on T2-weighted images.
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keywords = cerebral
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4/100. Brainstem death and ventilator trigger settings.

    A patient with cerebral infarction was certified clinically brainstem dead. However, 4 h after the diagnosis of death, while the patient was being ventilated using the biphasic positive airway pressure mode, the 'assist' indicator light on the Drager Evita 2 ventilator illuminated intermittently. There was no evidence of spontaneous breathing. 'Triggering' was probably caused by a decrease in airway pressure in time with cardiac contraction. The trigger flow rate is crucial as factors other than the patient's inspiratory effort can initiate flow from the ventilator with very sensitive settings.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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5/100. Fulminant guillain-barre syndrome mimicking cerebral death: case report and literature review.

    A 45-year-old woman was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for respiratory arrest. One day prior to admission, she had been nauseated and in a state of total exhaustion. On the night of admission she was unresponsive and developed gasping respiration. The patient was comatose with absent brainstem reflexes and appeared brain dead. Blood chemistry findings and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. Electroencephalogram revealed an alpha rhythmical activity unresponsive to painful or visual stimuli. The cerebrospinal fluid showed an albuminocytological dissociation. guillain-barre syndrome (GBS) was suspected. The electrophysiological evaluation revealed an inexcitability of all nerves. The pathological findings of the sural nerve biopsy indicated an axonal degeneration secondary to severe demyelination. GBS can very rarely present with coma and absent brainstem reflexes. This case illustrates the importance of electrophysiological tests and laboratory and imaging studies in patients with suspected brain death where a cause is not clearly determined.
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ranking = 4
keywords = cerebral
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6/100. pneumothorax and pneumoperitoneum during the apnea test: how safe is this procedure?

    apnea test is a crucial requirement for determining the diagnosis of brain death (BD). There are few reports considering clinical complications during this procedure. We describe a major complication during performing the apnea test. We also analyse their practical and legal implications, and review the complications of this procedure in the literature. A 54 year-old man was admitted for impaired consciousness due to a massive intracerebral hemorrhage. Six hours later, he had no motor response, and all brainstem reflexes were negative. The patient fulfilled American Academy of neurology (AAN) criteria for determining BD. During the apnea test, the patient developed pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, and finally cardiac arrest. apnea test is a necessary requirement for the diagnosis of brain death. However, it is not innocuous and caution must be take in particular clinical situations. Complications during the apnea test could be more frequent than reported and may have practical and legal implications. Further prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the frequency and nature of complications during this practice.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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7/100. A 35-year-old man with cerebral hemorrhage and pheochromocytoma: the second brain-dead organ donor in japan.

    A 35-year-old man was brought into the emergency room of Keio University Hospital by ambulance because of a sudden onset of coma. His glasgow coma scale was 3 and his blood pressure 150/100 mmHg. CT scanning revealed a subcortical hemorrhage 8 cm in diameter. His respiration deteriorated rapidly, and an emergency craniotomy was performed for hematoma removal and cerebral decompression. Postoperatively the patient remained in a deep coma (GCS = 3) requiring respiratory support. The family presented an organ donor card previously signed by the patient, and brain death was confirmed in accordance with japan's transplant law. As a result of two tests conducted six hours apart brain death was confirmed on the 5th postoperative day. With the family's consent, the donor's heart, kidneys and skin were removed for organ transplantation to be performed in other institutions. An autopsy was performed after the removal of the organs and skin. An extensive subgaleal hemorrhage was found in the left cerebral hemisphere, and microscopic examination revealed extensive necrosis with karyolysis of neuronal cells, but no viable neuronal cells were found in the cerebrum. The brain stem was marked by edema, hemorrhage, infarction necrosis and neuronal cell loss. The cerebellum was swollen and congested and showed autolysis of the granular layer. These findings suggested brain death syndrome with respirator brain. Other autopsy findings included a huge pheochromocytoma in the right adrenal gland, bilateral bronchopneumonia, liver congestion and fatty metamorphosis with four cavernous hemangiomas, and mild chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. This patient was the second brain-dead organ donor and the first brain-dead patient to undergo postmortem examination in japan.
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ranking = 6
keywords = cerebral
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8/100. The diagnosis of brain depression in the presence of severe multisystem disease--a case study.

    Brain depression in a patient with severe multisystem disease can be a diagnostic challenge, particularly when the patient is maintained on artificial life-support systems. A case report is presented of a 13-year-old girl with severe pneumonia who was treated with prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass during which time she developed a clinical picture simulating brain death with marked depression of cerebral cortical activity on two successive EEGs. Following correction of some of her metabolic defects, the patient showed marked improvement of cortical function. Multisystem disease can be so severe as to produce a clinical picture of brain death. We wish to emphasize that brain hypofunction of depression is best evaluated by both clinical examination and the EEG, and that neither one alone is sufficient to conclude that cerebral death has occurred.
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ranking = 2
keywords = cerebral
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9/100. rCBF in impending brain death.

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in three patients after relief of elevated intracranial pressure and restoration of normal cerebral perfusion pressure. Two patients, studied within 4 hours after closed head injury were found to have marked impairment of cortical blood flow and elevation of cerebrovascular resistance. We suggest that this picture is indicative of impending brain death, and may be the result of a long period of severe cerebral ischemia. The third patient, who had a shorter period of intracranial hypertension occurring during anaesthetic induction, responded to reduction of ICP quite differently with a transient relative hyperaemia. The physiopathological explanations for these two different types of flow response and their possible clinical significance are discussed.
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ranking = 3
keywords = cerebral
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10/100. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome as a postoperative complication after surgical resection of acoustic neuroma.

    STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary care, university hospital. patients: The authors describe two patients operated on for acoustic neuroma in whom hyponatremia occurred after intervention. INTERVENTIONS: Acoustic neuroma surgery. RESULTS: Wrong diagnosis in case of central nervous system disorder associated with hyponatremia can have fatal consequences. CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report associating cerebral salt wasting syndrome with previous surgical resection of acoustic neuroma.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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