Cases reported "Brain Death"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/12. Brainstem death and ventilator trigger settings.

    A patient with cerebral infarction was certified clinically brainstem dead. However, 4 h after the diagnosis of death, while the patient was being ventilated using the biphasic positive airway pressure mode, the 'assist' indicator light on the Drager Evita 2 ventilator illuminated intermittently. There was no evidence of spontaneous breathing. 'Triggering' was probably caused by a decrease in airway pressure in time with cardiac contraction. The trigger flow rate is crucial as factors other than the patient's inspiratory effort can initiate flow from the ventilator with very sensitive settings.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = breathing
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/12. Fulminant guillain-barre syndrome mimicking cerebral death: case report and literature review.

    A 45-year-old woman was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for respiratory arrest. One day prior to admission, she had been nauseated and in a state of total exhaustion. On the night of admission she was unresponsive and developed gasping respiration. The patient was comatose with absent brainstem reflexes and appeared brain dead. Blood chemistry findings and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. Electroencephalogram revealed an alpha rhythmical activity unresponsive to painful or visual stimuli. The cerebrospinal fluid showed an albuminocytological dissociation. guillain-barre syndrome (GBS) was suspected. The electrophysiological evaluation revealed an inexcitability of all nerves. The pathological findings of the sural nerve biopsy indicated an axonal degeneration secondary to severe demyelination. GBS can very rarely present with coma and absent brainstem reflexes. This case illustrates the importance of electrophysiological tests and laboratory and imaging studies in patients with suspected brain death where a cause is not clearly determined.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 4.6732887956282
keywords = respiration
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/12. A 35-year-old man with cerebral hemorrhage and pheochromocytoma: the second brain-dead organ donor in japan.

    A 35-year-old man was brought into the emergency room of Keio University Hospital by ambulance because of a sudden onset of coma. His glasgow coma scale was 3 and his blood pressure 150/100 mmHg. CT scanning revealed a subcortical hemorrhage 8 cm in diameter. His respiration deteriorated rapidly, and an emergency craniotomy was performed for hematoma removal and cerebral decompression. Postoperatively the patient remained in a deep coma (GCS = 3) requiring respiratory support. The family presented an organ donor card previously signed by the patient, and brain death was confirmed in accordance with japan's transplant law. As a result of two tests conducted six hours apart brain death was confirmed on the 5th postoperative day. With the family's consent, the donor's heart, kidneys and skin were removed for organ transplantation to be performed in other institutions. An autopsy was performed after the removal of the organs and skin. An extensive subgaleal hemorrhage was found in the left cerebral hemisphere, and microscopic examination revealed extensive necrosis with karyolysis of neuronal cells, but no viable neuronal cells were found in the cerebrum. The brain stem was marked by edema, hemorrhage, infarction necrosis and neuronal cell loss. The cerebellum was swollen and congested and showed autolysis of the granular layer. These findings suggested brain death syndrome with respirator brain. Other autopsy findings included a huge pheochromocytoma in the right adrenal gland, bilateral bronchopneumonia, liver congestion and fatty metamorphosis with four cavernous hemangiomas, and mild chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. This patient was the second brain-dead organ donor and the first brain-dead patient to undergo postmortem examination in japan.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 4.6732887956282
keywords = respiration
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/12. Isolated medulla oblongata function after severe traumatic brain injury.

    The objective was to report the first pathologically confirmed case of partly functionally preserved medulla oblongata in a patient with catastrophic traumatic brain injury.A patient is described with epidural haematoma with normal breathing and blood pressure and a retained coughing reflex brought on only by catheter suctioning of the carina. Multiple contusions in the thalami and pons were found but the medulla oblongata was spared at necropsy. In conclusion, medulla oblongata function may persist despite rostrocaudal deterioration. This comatose state ("medulla man") closely mimics brain death.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = breathing
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/12. Electrocerebral silence with preserved but reduced cortical brain perfusion.

    Isoelectric electroencephalogram in conformance with clinical findings is strongly suggestive of brain death. In clinical practice, isoelectric electroencephalogram in not-brain-dead patients is rarely seen. We report on a 53-year-old patient who suffered ischaemic encephalopathy after cardiopulmonary arrest. He had residual brainstem function with sufficient spontaneous breathing and evidence of cerebral blood flow on single photon emission computed tomography scan, but his electroencephalogram was isoelectric. He survived this condition for more than 7 weeks. This case demonstrates that isoelectric electroencephalogram can not be equated with brain death, and that in prognostic assessment both clinical findings and supportive technical methods are mandatory.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = breathing
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/12. Cardiotocographic and sonographic findings in two cases of antenatally diagnosed intrauterine fetal brain death.

    Intrauterine fetal brain death is a rare cause of a fixed fetal heart rate pattern. Seven cases have been previously reported in the literature, but only two of them were diagnosed prenatally and all the newborns died soon after delivery. Two additional cases of antepartum diagnosis of intrauterine fetal brain death, managed expectantly, are reported. We had the unique opportunity to document progressive sonographic cerebral changes during the follow-up period, following the neurological event, while the fetus continued life and growth in utero. The cardiographic and sonographic findings suggesting intrauterine fetal brain death were a prolonged fixed fetal heart rate, even following a vibroacoustic and contraction stress test; an atonic fetus without breathing and body movement; and the appearance of hydramnios and the development of ventriculomegaly.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = breathing
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/12. Loss of brainstem acoustic evoked potentials with spontaneous breathing in a patient with supratentorial lesion.

    The loss of brainstem acoustic evoked potentials (BAEP) is considered as a confirmatory test for the diagnosis of brain death in patients with supratentorial lesions. We report a patient with ischemia in the territory of the left middle and anterior cerebral artery, who showed a loss of BAEP waves III-V as a sign of brainstem compression, but maintained spontaneous breathing and EEG activities. We conclude that occasionally BAEP may provide misleading results in the diagnosis of brain death.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 5
keywords = breathing
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/12. Determination of brain death via pulsatile echoencephalography.

    For cerebral death to occur there must be many levels of cerebral function destroyed. Cortical and subcortical irreversible damage is evident by unresponsiveness to any stimuli. brain stem and basal ganglia damage is indicated by absence of spontaneous respirations, cephalic reflexes, and thus cerebral circulation. All elements of the criteria for cerebral death must be met. The decision should be made by the attending physician in consultation with his peers. The life support mechanisms should be discontinued after the diagnosis of cerebral death has been made. Absence of pulsatile echoes means absence of cerebral circulation and cerebral function, or a definitive diagnosis of cerebral death. It is a final parameter in the criteria and allows definite measures to be taken. But it behooves one to remember that this phenomenon of cerebral death makes organ donation and transplantation possible. It has not been created in order to supply the needs for organ transplant!
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 4.6732887956282
keywords = respiration
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/12. The complete apallic syndrome--a case report.

    In six patients with apallic syndrome the EEG was isoelectric, although the patients were breathing spontaneously and vegetative functions remained stable for a long period of time. No cortical somatosensory evoked potentials could be recorded in four of the patients examined. Cranial CT performed in three patients revealed extensive hypodensity of the cortex, whereas the brain stem showed no major damage. This syndrome is labelled a "complete apallic syndrome". None of our patients, and none of the 23 patients described in the literature, recovered.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = breathing
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/12. Neocortical death in infants: behavioral, neurologic, and electroencephalographic characteristics.

    Neocortical death is a form of the persistent vegetative state characterized by the maintenance of sleep/wakeful cycles and spontaneous respirations and the lack of cognitive function. It is difficult to diagnose in neonates and young infants because their cognitive skills are limited by inexperience and by immaturity of the central nervous system. Because neocortical death has not been described previously for this age group, we report the neurologic, behavioral, electroencephalographic, and computed tomographic characteristics of three infants who survived in the persistent vegetative state following severe brain injury. Each infant appeared to exhibit some complex behaviors, including interaction with the environment and the examiners, although the electroencephalograms documented no electrical activity of cerebral origin. Computed tomography revealed extensive destruction of the cerebral hemispheres. Infants and newborns with a history suggesting brain injury and with the neurologic and behavioral characteristics described here should be evaluated with serial electroencephalograms and computed tomography to diagnose the syndrome of neocortical death.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 4.6732887956282
keywords = respiration
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Brain Death'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.