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1/4. medulloblastoma in a child with the metabolic disease L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria.

    L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (LHGA) is a rare autosomal recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterized by psychomotor retardation, progressive ataxia and typical magnetic resonance imaging findings, and presents in early infancy. On the other hand, medulloblastomas are very common solid tumors of childhood and infancy. We present a 3-year-old boy with LHGA who developed a medulloblastoma during the course of the disease. There has been no previous report of the coexistence of medulloblastomas with LHGA. central nervous system tumors are encountered in children with other metabolic neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of this paper is to focus on the difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of an intracranial tumor in a child already neurologically impaired due to metabolic neurodegenerative disease.
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keywords = metabolic disease
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2/4. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in glutaric acidemia type I: a review of the literature and a report of four new cases with attention to the basal ganglia and imaging technique.

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: In glutaric acidemia type I (GA I), a pediatric neurometabolic disease that may be mistaken for nonaccidental trauma, expeditious detection is critical as early treatment may substantially improve psychomotor dysfunction. In this study, we examine in depth the magnetic resonance (MR) findings, with special attention to the basal ganglia, in 4 new cases and compare the findings with those described in the literature. methods: MR studies of 4 children, diagnosed to have GA I via cultured fibroblast enzyme studies or urine metabolite assays, were performed on a 1.5 T system in the axial plane using spin echo T(1)-weighted, fast spin echo T(2)-weighted, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) technique. Three of 4 patients were followed with serial exams to document temporal evolution of the disease. RESULTS: On T(2)-weighted images, abnormal increased signal intensity was seen in both the putamen and globus pallidus in all cases. However, in contradistinction to cases reported in the literature, involvement of the caudate nucleus was minimal or absent even on serial MR exams. In children 15 months and older, FLAIR improved recognition of basal ganglia and white matter abnormalities. The previously described widened cerebrospinal fluid spaces anterior to the temporal lobes, increased T(2)-weighted signal intensity in the periventricular white matter, and widened sylvian fissures characteristic of GA I were noted in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormalities of the caudate nucleus are not a prominent presentation of these patients and the absence of this finding should not exclude a diagnosis of GA I. FLAIR scans, as an adjunct to more conventional T(1)- and T(2)-weighted sequences, can play an important role in children 15 months or older despite immature myelination in these patients.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = metabolic disease
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3/4. Normal pregnancy outcome in L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria.

    L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA) is a rare progressive neurometabolic disease, defined as a characteristic clinical and radiological entity, mainly including mental retardation, cerebellar dysfunction and involvement of the subcortical white matter, cerebellum and basal ganglia on brain MRI. The biochemical hallmark is an increased urinary excretion of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid. Management is only supportive. A child born to a Turkish mother in whom L-2-HGA was previously diagnosed is reported. Although pregnancy was repeatedly advised against because of the important degree of mental retardation and the potential risk of a toxic effect on the embryo and/or fetus (at that time no reports of maternal L-2-HGA were available), she became pregnant at 30 years of age and the pregnancy passed uneventfully. On amniocentesis, performed at 5 months of gestational age, elevated 2-hydroxyglutarate, previously shown to be almost exclusively the L-2-stereoisomer, was present in the amniotic fluid: 27.5mu mol/L (controls <1.3; n=5). The child, not affected by the disease as shown by a normal urinary excretion of 2-hydroxyglutaric acid, was normal at birth. When last examined at the age of 3 years, both somatic and mental development were excellent. As the pathogenesis of the extensive brain damage in affected persons remains largely unknown, notwithstanding the recent identification of the mutated gene and the deficient enzyme, one can only speculate on the mechanism by which embryo and fetus from a L-2-HGA mother are spared, at least in this case.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = metabolic disease
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4/4. A case of ethylmalonic encephalopathy with atypical clinical and biochemical presentation.

    A child is reported presenting with a clinical picture suggestive of genetic connective tissue disorders (vascular fragility, articular hyperlaxity, delayed motor development, and normal cognitive development), an absence of pathological ethylmalonic acid excretion during inter-critical phases and a homozygous R163W mutation in the ETHE1 gene. This case suggests that ethylmalonic aciduria is not a constant biochemical marker of ethylmalonic encephalopathy and that its normal excretion outside of metabolic decompensation episodes does not exclude this metabolic disease.
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keywords = metabolic disease
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