Cases reported "Brain Diseases, Metabolic"

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1/72. Electroencephalographic findings in ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    A 3-day-old infant presented with anorexia, irritability, hypotonia, and seizures. blood ammonia was 2115 micromol/L and amino and organic acid analyses were consistent with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. liver biopsy confirmed only 1% enzyme activity. The patient was treated with hemodialysis. An electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed multifocal independent spike-and-sharp-wave discharges. After initial stabilization he was placed on a low-protein diet with citrulline and phenylbutyrate. Conjugating agents (arginine, sodium benzoate, and sodium phenylacetate) have been added during periods of metabolic decompensation. Although developmentally delayed, the patient has shown signs of clinical improvement and EEG activity has likewise improved with only mild background slowing and no evidence of epileptogenic activity at 4 years of age. A second infant presented at 3 days of age with a similar history, blood ammonia of 1382 micromol/L, and metabolic studies indicative of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. EEG showed multifocal independent ictal and interictal discharges. Electrographic abnormalities persisted despite lowering of blood ammonia with hemodialysis and conjugating agents. The patient continued to decline clinically and died on the 7th hospital day. EEG changes parallel the clinical course of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and may serve as an objective marker of the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions.
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keywords = ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, transcarbamylase deficiency, ornithine transcarbamylase, transcarbamylase, ornithine, deficiency
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2/72. In vivo brain proton MR spectroscopy in a case of molybdenum cofactor deficiency.

    A 20-day-old infant with molybdenum cofactor deficiency, a rare encephalopathy, was investigated using cerebral MRI and proton MR spectroscopy. Images demonstrated extensive white-matter destruction with large cavities. The short-echo-time MR spectrum acquired in the parieto-occipital area was characterised by global loss of signal and accumulation of lactate. No additional signal in relation to the pathophysiology of the disease was detected. The brain metabolic abnormalities observed in this patient may reflect destruction of white matter and the presence of large cavities.
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ranking = 0.00050025798658725
keywords = deficiency
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3/72. Reversible brain creatine deficiency in two sisters with normal blood creatine level.

    We describe a new creatine metabolism disorder in 2 young sisters who suffered from mental retardation and severe language delay. blood examination, investigation of the most common neurometabolic disorders, and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. diagnosis was established only by means of in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which disclosed generalized depletion of creatine in the brain. creatine monohydrate oral administration led to almost complete brain creatine level restoration along with improvement of the patients' disabilities.
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ranking = 0.0004002063892698
keywords = deficiency
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4/72. bone marrow transplantation corrects osteopetrosis in the carbonic anhydrase ii deficiency syndrome.

    carbonic anhydrase ii (CAII), found in renal tubules, brain, and osteoclasts, is critical in acid-base homeostasis and bone remodeling. Deficiency of CAII gives rise to a syndrome of osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis (RTA), and cerebral calcification with associated developmental delay. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and found most frequently in the mediterranean region and the middle east. We report 2 related Irish families with clinically severe CAII deficiency in whom the gene mutation has been fully elucidated. Two children, one from each family, have undergone allogeneic bone marrow transplantation because of severe progressive visual and hearing loss. The older 2 children had already developed cerebral calcification and marked visual loss at the time of diagnosis and were treated symptomatically. Post-transplantation evaluation at 2 and 3 years demonstrates histologic and radiologic resolution of their osteopetrosis with stabilization of hearing and vision. Both children remain developmentally delayed and continue to have RTA, and the older child has now developed cerebral calcification. Allogeneic bone marrow stem cell replacement cures the osteoclast component of CAII deficiency and retards the development of cerebral calcification, but it appears to have little or no effect on the renal lesions. (blood. 2001;97:1947-1950)
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ranking = 0.0006003095839047
keywords = deficiency
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5/72. urea cycle disorders in Thai infants: a report of 5 cases.

    urea Cycle Disorders (UCD) is an inborn error of urea synthesis in which ammonium and other nitrogenous precursors of urea accumulate leading to episodic coma and a high mortality rate. Therapy with peritoneal dialysis, essential amino acids or their nitrogen-free analogues has increased survival. The authors report 5 cases of urea cycle disorders, all of whom developed and were rescued from hyperammonemic coma. However, the eventual outcome was quite variable. argininosuccinate lyase deficiency (ALD) Case 1. A 2 month old male infant, a product of a consanguineous marriage (Suphanburi province); developed poor feeding on day 7, lethargy, convulsion, hepatomegaly and respiratory alkalosis leading to respiratory failure and coma. hyperammonemia, elevation of glutamic acid and argininosuccinic acid and its anhydrides confirmed the diagnosis of ALD. He is now 9 years old and severely retarded. Case 2. A male infant with history of lethargy, poor feeding on day 3, treated as sepsis and required respiratory support for 6 days; subsequently readmitted at age 2 weeks with vomitting, lethargy, seizure activity and hyperammonemia, and was treated by a local pediatrician in Songkhla province. There was a history of parental consanguinity and he was referred to Siriraj Hospital on day 64 with severe essential amino acid deficiency and acrodermatitis enteropathica with markedly elevated plasma citrulline level. In spite of aggressive treatment; the patient developed sepsis and he expired on day 78. ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTC) Case 3. An eleven-month-old male infant, the product of a non-consanguineous marriage, developed neonatal onset of hyperammonemia on day 5 after poor feeding, lethargy, hypothermia, seizure, apnea and coma. He was rescued from neonatal hyperammonemic coma on day 9 after aggressive treatment, but expired at eleven months of age after overwhelming sepsis. Case 4. A male infant, sibling of case 3 was referred to Siriraj Hospital on day 8 with hyperammonemia and coma. In spite of intensive genetic counseling given after the birth of their first child with OTC, the couple chose to have another baby without informing any physician. The baby developed vomiting and lethargy on day 2; subsequently hyperammonemia was noted. In spite of aggressive treatment given; hepatic dysfunction, renal failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation defects occurred on day 15. He expired on day 18 after parental permission for discontinuation of all treatment. Argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency (ASS) or citrullinemia. Case 5. A seven week old female infant, the product of a consanguineous marriage and of Pakistani ethnic origin; developed intermittent vomiting from day 6. Initial diagnoses included ruminations, sepsis and pyloric stenosis for which she was operated on (day 30); however, vomiting continued; subsequently seizures, hyperammonemic coma developed and she was rescued from hyperammonemic coma within 30 hours. Significant elevations of citrulline and L-glutamine were demonstrated. She was discharged in excellent condition to her home in Dubai, the united arab emirates.
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ranking = 0.04666025203356
keywords = transcarbamylase deficiency, transcarbamylase, deficiency
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6/72. Neuroglycopenia in normoglycaemic patients, and the potential benefit of ketosis.

    We report a patient with recurrent symptoms of neuroglycopenia due to a defective glucose transport into brain. The potential benefit of ketosis in neuroglycopenia is discussed from the therapeutic concept of a ketogenic diet in GLUT1-deficiency syndrome.
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ranking = 0.00010005159731745
keywords = deficiency
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7/72. brain MR imaging in neonatal hyperammonemic encephalopathy resulting from proximal urea cycle disorders.

    We present brain MR images in three patients with neonatal-onset hyperammonemic encephalopathy resulting from urea-cycle disorders (two sisters with deficiency of the carbamyl phosphate synthetase I reaction step and one boy with an ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency). MR imaging revealed almost identical findings of injury to the bilateral lentiform nuclei and the deep sulci of the insular and perirolandic regions; to our knowledge, this pattern has not been previously reported. We hypothesize that these lesions presumably reflect the distribution of brain injury due to hypoperfusion secondary to hyperammonemia and hyperglutaminemia in the neonatal period.
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ranking = 0.14295719445446
keywords = ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, transcarbamylase deficiency, ornithine transcarbamylase, transcarbamylase, ornithine, deficiency
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8/72. Leigh syndrome with COX deficiency and SURF1 gene mutations: MR imaging findings.

    Mutations in the nuclear SURF1 gene are specifically associated with cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient Leigh syndrome. MR imaging abnormalities in three children with this condition involved the subthalamic nuclei, medulla, inferior cerebellar peduncles, and substantia nigra in all cases. The dentate nuclei and central tegmental tracts were involved in two cases each (all instances), and the putamina, interpeduncular nucleus, and pallido-cortical-nigro-cortical tracts in one. MR imaging pattern recognition can suggest an underlying COX deficiency and should prompt investigators to search for SURF1 gene mutations.
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ranking = 0.00050025798658725
keywords = deficiency
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9/72. tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency causes progressive encephalopathy and dopa-nonresponsive dystonia.

    tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the catecholamines dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Recessively inherited deficiency of TH was recently identified and incorporated into recent concepts of genetic dystonias as the cause of recessive Dopa-responsive dystonia or Segawa's syndrome in analogy to dominantly inherited gtp cyclohydrolase I deficiency. We report four patients with TH deficiency and two with gtp cyclohydrolase I deficiency. patients with TH deficiency suffer from progressive infantile encephalopathy dominated by motor retardation similar to a primary neuromuscular disorder, fluctuating extrapyramidal, and ocular and vegetative symptoms. Intellectual functions are mostly compromised. Prenatally disturbed brain development and postnatal growth failure were observed. Treatment with levodopa ameliorates but usually does not normalize symptoms. Compared with patients with dominantly inherited gtp cyclohydrolase I deficiency, catecholaminergic neurotransmission is severely and constantly impaired in TH deficiency. In most patients, this results not in predominating dystonia, a largely nondegenerative condition, but in a progressive often lethal neurometabolic disorder, which can be improved but not cured by L-dopa. Investigations of neurotransmitter defects by specific cerebrospinal fluid determinations should be included in the diagnostic evaluation of children with progressive infantile encephalopathy.
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ranking = 0.001100567570492
keywords = deficiency
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10/72. Cytochrome C oxidase-deficient mitochondria in mitochondrial myopathy.

    Electron microscopic cytochemistry was used to evaluate the behavior of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in cultured skin fibroblasts from 4 patients with decreased COX activity (Leigh encephalopathy, fatal infantile COX deficiency). In patients with Leigh encephalopathy, all mitochondria reacted to COX staining either equivocally or negatively, indicating that all mitochondria were abnormal in these patients. In 1 patient with fatal infantile COX deficiency, intercellular heterogeneity of mitochondria was observed by COX staining. In another patient with fatal infantile COX deficiency, intracellular heterogeneity of mitochondria was observed. patients with Leigh encephalopathy appeared to have a different type of mitochondrial COX deficiency than those with fatal infantile COX deficiency. Our result suggest that these 2 diseases may result from different genetic mechanisms.
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keywords = deficiency
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