Cases reported "Brain Diseases"

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1/1627. central nervous system T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in a patient with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PURPOSE: central nervous system (CNS)-T cell lymphoproliferative disorder (T-LPD) developing during the course of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is reported. patients AND methods: CAEBV was diagnosed in a 14-month-old boy with fever, cytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and abnormal high titers of anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies. At 8 years of age, he had a splenectomy because of progressive disease. RESULTS: After 27 months of clinical remission, muscle weakness and paresthesia developed. magnetic resonance imaging of his brain showed spotty T2 prolongation in left parietal, bilateral frontal, and temporal white matter with meningeal enhancement. brain biopsy revealed the cerebral infiltration of CD3 , CD4 , CD8-, CD45RO , CD56-, and EBV-encoded rna 1 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The CNS involvement of EBV-associated T-LPD is a rare but serious complication in CAEBV without known underlying immunodeficiency.
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keywords = cerebral
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2/1627. Anterior pontine hydatid cyst: case report.

    We report a rare case of anterior pontine hydatid cyst. diagnosis was established on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings preoperatively and was confirmed during surgery and by laboratory findings of cyst fluid, and section of cyst wall. A classical suboccipital craniectomy was performed, followed by an approach through the floor of the fourth ventricle. After a failed attempt at the Dowling technique, we punctured the cyst, aspirated the contents, then extirpated the cyst membrane. The patient survived suffering only minor morbidity. The surgical technique and pontine myelotomy are discussed.
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ranking = 0.5022426316067
keywords = ventricle
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3/1627. Two similar cases of encephalopathy, possibly a reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome: serial findings of magnetic resonance imaging, SPECT and angiography.

    Two young women who had encephalopathy that resembled reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome are presented. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of these patients exhibited similar T2-high signal lesions, mostly in the white matter of the posterior hemispheres. Xe-SPECT during the patients' symptomatic period showed hypoperfusion in the corresponding areas, and angiography demonstrated irregular narrowing of the posterior cerebral artery. Clinical manifestations subsided soon after treatment, and the abnormal radiological findings also were almost completely resolved. Thus, we concluded that transient hypoperfusion followed by ischemia and cytotoxic edema might have had a pivotal role in these cases.
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keywords = cerebral
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4/1627. 18Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18FDG) PET scan of the brain in type IV 3-methylglutaconic aciduria: clinical and MRI correlations.

    The clinical, 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG PET) and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scan characteristics of four patients diagnosed to have 3-methylglutaconic aciduria were reviewed retrospectively. The disease has a characteristic clinical pattern. The initial presentations were developmental delay, hypotonia, and severe failure to thrive. Later, progressive encephalopathy with rigidity and quadriparesis were observed, followed by severe dystonia and choreoathetosis. Finally, the patients became severely demented and bedridden. The 18FDG PET scans showed progressive disease, explaining the neurological status. It could be classified into three stages. Stage I: absent 18FDG uptake in the heads of the caudate, mild decreased thalamic and cerebellar metabolism. Stage II: absent uptake in the anterior half and posterior quarter of the putamina, mild-moderate decreased uptake in the cerebral cortex more prominently in the parieto-temporal lobes. Progressive decreased thalamic and cerebellar uptake. Stage III: absent uptake in the putamina and severe decreased cortical uptake consistent with brain atrophy and further decrease uptake in the cerebellum. The presence of both structural and functional changes in the brain, demonstrated by the combined use of MRI and 18FDG PET scan, with good clinical correlation, make the two techniques complementary in the imaging evaluation of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria.
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keywords = cerebral
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5/1627. Endoscopic sinus surgery in the management of mucormycosis.

    This is a report of the use of endoscopic sinus surgery in the management of three patients diagnosed with rhino-orbital or rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis. A retrospective review was performed of the clinical examinations and imaging studies of three patients who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery as part of their therapy for mucormycosis. In addition to endoscopic surgery, all patients had aggressive control of underlying risk factors (diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression) and prolonged intravenous amphotericin b therapy. All three patients survived and avoided orbital exenteration. In selected patients with rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis, endoscopic techniques can play a valuable role in diagnosis and management.
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ranking = 2
keywords = cerebral
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6/1627. Intracranial calcification mimicking the sturge-weber syndrome: a consequence of cerebral folic acid deficiency?

    Cerebral cortical calcification identical to that of the sturge-weber syndrome was observed in two children. In one child the calcification appeared after intrathecal administration of methotrexate and skull irradiation because of leukemia involving the central nervous system. In the other child, who had coeliac disease and epilepsy, the calcification appeared after treatment with anticonvulsants. This treatment was also contributing to the development of profound megaloblastic anemia. The unspecificity of the Sturge-Weber calcification is stressed and the hypothesis is put forward that the calcification may be secondary to folic acid deficiency interfering with the matabolism in the central nervous system.
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ranking = 4
keywords = cerebral
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7/1627. actinomycosis of the central nervous system: surgical treatment of three cases.

    Three cases of actinomycotic brain infection are described, 2 of which manifested as cerebral abscess, the third as epidural empyema. Complete resolution of the infection was always achieved by means of surgical treatment and prolonged antibiotic therapy. The cases reported emphasize the importance of a combined approach in the treatment of this unusual cause of brain infection.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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8/1627. Cerebral heterotopia of the temporofacial region. Case report.

    The authors report a case of cerebral heterotopia in the right temporofacial region of a neonate. The lesion presented as a massive cystic swelling containing cerebrospinal fluid. It produced calvarial and facial bone deformities. After the mass was excised, histological examination revealed glial tissue and choroid plexus.
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keywords = cerebral
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9/1627. Changing characteristics of a colloid cyst of the third ventricle.

    We describe extremely unusual radiological characteristics in a colloid cyst of the third ventricle, where the cyst became dense and its size decreased following a cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedure. Such a course of events has been reported in colloid cysts only twice in the literature.
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ranking = 2.5112131580335
keywords = ventricle
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10/1627. Diaschisis in chronic viral encephalitis with Koshevnikov syndrome.

    The authors report a 61-year-old man with chronic viral encephalitis and Koshevnikov syndrome occurring 42 months after initial symptom of right hemiparesis. Serial computed tomography of the brain showed changes in the attenuation of the left temporal lobe lesion over time. Magnetic resonance images of the brain showed enlargement of left temporoparietooccipital lobes with cortical gyral enhancement on T1-weighted images following intravenous administration of gadolinium-DTPA. 99mTc-HMPAO single-photon emission computerized tomography showed increased radioactivity and hyperperfusion in the left temporoparietal region with paradoxically decreased local tissue perfusion at the contralateral right hemisphere. Follow-up magnetic resonance images of the brain 4 years later showed atrophy of bilateral cerebral hemispheres. We postulate that a "transcallosal diaschisis" with subsequent degeneration is a possible mechanism. A brain biopsy from the left temporal lobe lesion showed pictures compatible with viral encephalitis probably herpes simplex encephalitis.
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keywords = cerebral
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