Cases reported "Brain Diseases"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/44. Involuntary laughter and inappropriate hilarity.

    laughter is a particularly human behavior. Neuropsychiatrists are faced with disorders of laughter, yet the nature of this behavior and its disturbances remains obscure. The authors report an unusual patient with involuntary and unremitting laughter for 20 years and review the literature. The nature of laughter suggests that it has a unique role in human communication, particularly in the social exploration of incongruous information. The disorders of laughter suggest a neuroanatomical circuitry that includes the anterior cingulate gyrus, caudal hypothalamus, temporal-amygdala structures, and a pontomedullary center. Treatment includes the use of antidepressant and antimanic agents for disorders of laughter.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = communication
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/44. Technological applications in the assessment of acquired neurogenic communication and swallowing disorders in adults.

    The role of technology is expanding rapidly in many aspects of the diagnostic process with patients who have neurogenic communication and swallowing disorders. In this article we discuss a broad selection of technological tools that enhance a wide range of diagnostic tasks, such as taking case histories, administering and scoring tests, performing acoustic, physiologic, cognitive, and linguistic analyses, making normative comparisons, profiling diagnostic results, and making diagnostic decisions. Clinicians are encouraged to scrutinize the relative value of all diagnostic tools to maintaining the quality of service. An appendix includes information for contacting vendors and manufacturers of the products discussed.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 5
keywords = communication
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/44. Endoscopic stereotactic surgery for intraventricular loculated empyema: case report.

    BACKGROUND: Ventriculitis accompanied by formation of an intraventricular loculated empyema is a very unusual complication of purulent meningitis. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 62-year-old man presented with acute purulent ventriculitis secondary to a small paraventricular abscess. The well-documented computed tomography scans demonstrated the development of an intraventricular loculated empyema in the posterior portion of the left lateral ventricle. A stereotactically guided endoscopic procedure was performed to drain and rinse the empyema and to remove membranous tissue in order to establish free communication with the ventricular system. In the further course, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed. The patient had recovered almost completely 1 year after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Ventriculitis frequently results in severe morbidity and often causes death. Intraventricular pathologies can be treated effectively by endoscopic stereotactic methods. To our knowledge, this is the first case of successful treatment of an intraventricular loculated empyema in an adult.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = communication
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/44. Cerebral herniation after lumbar puncture in sarcoid meningitis.

    A patient with chronic meningitis due to neurosarcoidosis became comatose within minutes of a lumbar puncture and died 24 h later. The diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis was made post mortem. Development of cerebral herniation may have been exacerbated by lumbar puncture. It was proposed that arachnoid villi dysfunction may have contributed to very high intracranial pressures in this patient, since post mortem examination revealed communication between the ventricles and outlet foramina of the fourth ventricle, and that herniation was in part due to an acute pressure differential caused by lumbar puncture.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = communication
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/44. A giant intracranial mucocele associated with an orbitoethmoidal osteoma. Case report.

    The authors present a rare case of a giant intracranial mucocele associated with an orbitoethmoidal osteoma in a patient suffering from a generalized convulsive disorder. The broad pedicle of the osteoma had penetrated the cribriform plate and extended intracranially to form a nodular mass in the olfactory groove. The intracranial portion of the osteoma was surrounded by a mucocele. Both the cyst wall and multilayered intracystic septations of the mucocele were indented by layers of the osteoma. Although the extracranial portion adhered to the mucosa of the ethmoidal sinus, there were no signs of sinus obstruction. No direct communication other than the osteoma was identified between the mucocele and the ethmoidal mucosa. The large cerebral defect, which the mucocele occupied, communicated directly with the lateral ventricle without any intervening membranous structures. A frontal craniotomy is recommended for exposure of the lesion and plastic repair of the dural defect.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = communication
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/44. Symptomatic lateral ventricular ependymal cysts: criteria for distinguishing these rare cysts from other symptomatic cysts of the ventricles: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Symptomatic lateral ventricular ependymal cysts are rare. Two previous cases of this lesion have been reported in the literature. We report a third case and provide radiological and histopathological criteria for differentiating this entity from common intracranial cysts. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old man presented with a 6-year history of seizures and progressive right occipitoparietal headaches. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a 4- x 3- x 3-cm nonenhancing cystic mass, expanding the trigone of the right lateral ventricle. INTERVENTION: The patient underwent a right occipital craniotomy. The cyst was opened, fluid was aspirated, the cyst wall was biopsied, and a cyst-subarachnoid communication was established. The patient did well postoperatively, with no seizures and with resolution of headaches. CONCLUSION: Lateral ventricular ependymal cysts are a rare cause of neurological symptoms, including headache and seizure. Distinctive radiographic characteristics distinguish these cysts at preoperative evaluation. Careful analysis of the histopathology and immunohistochemistry studies correctly identifies these lesions, gives insight into the natural history of ependymal cysts, and guides clinical management decisions.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = communication
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/44. Training and generalization of expressive syntax in nonfluent aphasia.

    Generalization of treatment effects remains a consistent goal of clinicians who treat aphasic adults. Specifically, various types of stimulus/response generalization designs are available, depending on the level of generalization desired. We have reviewed training matrices designed to elicit gestural subject-plus-verb targets and treatment studies designed to answer more global questions regarding treatment efficacy. As Kearns (1989) so eloquently states, "clinical accountability cannot, in fact, be fully achieved without documentation of communication skills trained in the clinic generalized to other settings and situations." Although the studies cited and data reviewed in this article did not meet this standard specifically, an attempt was made to provide a brief prelude to the data now emerging in the aphasiology literature. Additionally, with an increasing data base in the literature specific to generalization, more efficacious treatment paradigms will be made available. Clinicians treating aphasic adults thus should have the opportunity to choose the treatments shown to be most effective for a specific type and severity of aphasia.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = communication
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/44. magnetic fields in the therapy of parkinsonism.

    In a recent editorial published in this Journal, I presented a new and revolutionary method for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). I reported that extracranial treatment with picoTesla magnetic fields (MF) is a highly effective, safe, and revolutionary modality in the symptomatic management of PD. My conclusion was based on experience gained following the successful treatment of over 20 Parkinsonian patients, two of whom had levodopa-induced dyskinesias. None of the patients developed side effects during a several month period of follow-up. In the present communication, I present two reports. The first concerns four Parkinsonian patients in whom picoTesla MF produced a remarkable and sustained improvement in disability. Three of the patients had idiopathic PD and the fourth patient developed a Parkinsonian syndrome following an anoxic episode. In all patients, treatment with MF was applied as an adjunct to antiParkinsonian medication. The improvement noted in these patients attests to the efficacy of picoTesla MF as an additional, noninvasive modality in the therapy of the disease. The second report concerns two demented Parkinsonian patients in whom treatment with picoTesla MF rapidly reversed visuospatial impairment as demonstrated by the Clock Drawing Test. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the efficacy of these MF in the amelioration of cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease. Since Alzheimer's pathology frequently coexists with the dementia of Parkinsonism, these observations underscore the potential efficacy of picoTesla MF in the treatment of dementias of various etiologies.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = communication
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/44. Successful treatment of multiple sclerosis with magnetic fields.

    The present communication concerns a 50 year-old woman with a 15 year history of chronic-progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) in whom extracranial application of picoTesla magnetic fields (MF) produced a dramatic and sustained improvement in disability. In contrast, administration of melatonin (3 mg, P.O.) produced in this patient a rapid exacerbation of disability which was reversed subsequently by treatment with MF. It is hypothesized that the therapeutic effects of picoTesla MF involve the mediation of the pineal gland which is known to act as a magnetosensor. The report demonstrates, for the first time, the remarkable efficacy of weak MF in the symptomatic treatment of chronic-progressive MS and underscores the pivotal role of the pineal gland in the pathophysiology of MS. If confirmed by a larger cohort of patients, extracranial application of picoTesla MF may prove as an extremely efficacious, nonpharmacological modality for the treatment of MS.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = communication
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/44. Transient musical hallucinosis of central origin: a review and clinical study.

    A 52 year old, right handed, hearing impaired woman was admitted with headache and neck stiffness. The only neuropsychological symptom was transient auditory perceptions in the left ear, which were musical, seemed familiar and were not influenced by verbal communication. CT and MRI showed a right subarachnoid haemorrhage, while brainstem auditory evoked potentials failed to reveal a brainstem lesion. In patients with organic cerebral disease, unilateral auditory hallucinations (AHs) may indicate a lesion in the contralateral hemisphere. However, according to this review the type of AHs (verbal versus musical) is not consistently associated with a cerebral lesion on either side.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = communication
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Brain Diseases'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.