Cases reported "Brain Diseases"

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1/109. Neuroinvasion by human herpesvirus type 7 in a case of exanthem subitum with severe neurologic manifestations.

    A 19-month-old girl presented with severe neurologic symptoms associated with exanthem subitum. Human herpesvirus type 7 (HHV-7) dna was detected in the CSF and serum, and supported by serologic studies. The patient was diagnosed with encephalopathy due to an acute HHV-7 infection. Neuron-specific enolase in the CSF was strongly elevated during the acute stage of infection, suggesting that the encephalopathy was due to viral invasion of the brain.
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ranking = 1
keywords = herpes
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2/109. Diaschisis in chronic viral encephalitis with Koshevnikov syndrome.

    The authors report a 61-year-old man with chronic viral encephalitis and Koshevnikov syndrome occurring 42 months after initial symptom of right hemiparesis. Serial computed tomography of the brain showed changes in the attenuation of the left temporal lobe lesion over time. Magnetic resonance images of the brain showed enlargement of left temporoparietooccipital lobes with cortical gyral enhancement on T1-weighted images following intravenous administration of gadolinium-DTPA. 99mTc-HMPAO single-photon emission computerized tomography showed increased radioactivity and hyperperfusion in the left temporoparietal region with paradoxically decreased local tissue perfusion at the contralateral right hemisphere. Follow-up magnetic resonance images of the brain 4 years later showed atrophy of bilateral cerebral hemispheres. We postulate that a "transcallosal diaschisis" with subsequent degeneration is a possible mechanism. A brain biopsy from the left temporal lobe lesion showed pictures compatible with viral encephalitis probably herpes simplex encephalitis.
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ranking = 225.90204120627
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
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3/109. Postencephalitic focal retrograde amnesia after bilateral anterior temporal lobe damage.

    BACKGROUND: Marked retrograde amnesia with no or almost no anterograde amnesia is rare. Recently, a combination of ventrolateral prefrontal and temporopolar cortical lesions has been suggested as the cause of such isolated or focal retrograde amnesia. It is also assumed that when the right-sided cortical structures are damaged, autobiographical episodic memories are affected. OBJECTIVE: To search for new anatomic substrates for focal retrograde amnesia. methods: We performed extensive neuropsychological tests and obtained detailed neuroimages on a 43-year-old woman who showed a severe, persistent retrograde amnesia but only a limited anterograde amnesia after probable herpes simplex encephalitis. RESULTS: Tests of autobiographical memory revealed that she had a memory loss extending back to her childhood for both semantics and incidents; however, the ability to recall specific episodes appeared much more severely impaired than the ability to recall factual information about her past. The patient also showed profound impairments in recalling public memories; however, her scores improved nearly to a control level on forced-choice recognition memory tasks, although the recall of memories for a decade just before her illness remained mildly impaired. MRI revealed focal pathologies in the temporal poles and the anterior parts of the inferotemporal lobes on both sides, predominantly on the left, with some extension to the anterior parts of the medial temporal lobes. There was additional damage to the left insular cortex and its surrounding structures but no evidence of frontal lobe damage on MRIs or cognitive tests. CONCLUSIONS: A profound retrograde amnesia may be produced by damage to the bilateral temporal poles and anterior inferotemporal lobes in the absence of frontal lobe pathologies, and a dense and persistent episodic old memory loss can arise even with a relatively small lesion in the right anterior temporal lobe if it is combined with extensive damage to the left.
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ranking = 32.443148743753
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
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4/109. Severe La Crosse encephalitis with significant neurologic sequelae.

    La Crosse encephalitis, a member of the california arbovirus group, is the most common cause of reported mosquito-borne illness in the united states. Approximately 70 cases of La Crosse encephalitis are reported each year. The principal vector is the mosquito aedes triseriatus. During the summer the virus is amplified horizontally in a cycle among small mammals such as chipmunks and squirrels. Infected female A. triseriatus deposit eggs in the basal holes of hardwood trees, although man-made containers and old tires containing water also supply a suitable breeding site. Some of these eggs infected with la crosse virus hatch the next spring and give rise to infected adult A. triseriatus, and the host-vector cycle is renewed. Only a minority of children infected with the virus become ill. Clinical disease caused by La Crosse is usually mild, and neurologic sequelae are relatively uncommon. In this report we describe six patients with severe La Crosse meningoencephalitis diagnosed within a 4-week period. All patients required intensive care management, and there was a high rate of neurologic sequelae, suggesting that La Crosse is not necessarily a benign meningoencephalitis.
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ranking = 261.83309984652
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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5/109. Foix-Chavany-Marie (anterior operculum) syndrome in childhood: a reappraisal of Worster-Drought syndrome.

    Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome (FCMS) is a distinct clinical picture of suprabulbar (pseudobulbar) palsy due to bilateral anterior opercular lesions. Symptoms include anarthria/severe dysarthria and loss of voluntary muscular functions of the face and tongue, and problems with mastication and swallowing with preservation of reflex and autonomic functions. FCMS may be congenital or acquired as well as persistent or intermittent. The aetiology is heterogeneous; vascular events in adulthood, nearly exclusively affecting adults who experience multiple subsequent strokes; CNS infections; bilateral dysgenesis of the perisylvian region; and epileptic disorders. Of the six cases reported here, three children had FCMS as the result of meningoencephalitis, two children had FCMS due to a congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome, and one child had intermittent FCMS due to an atypical benign partial epilepsy with partial status epilepticus. The congenital dysgenetic type of FCMS and its functional epileptogenic variant share clinical and EEG features suggesting a common pathogenesis. Consequently, an increased vulnerability of the perisylvian region to adverse events in utero is discussed. In honour of Worster-Drought, who described the clinical entity in children 40 years ago, the term Worster-Drought syndrome is proposed for this unique disorder in children.
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ranking = 34.187103692
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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6/109. Five cases with central diabetes insipidus and hypogonadism as first presentation of neurosarcoidosis.

    OBJECTIVES: We retrospectively reviewed 5 patients with neurosarcoidosis, who all presented with central diabetes insipidus and hypogonadism. DESIGN: This was a single-centre, retrospective analysis of 5 cases with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. methods: Case analysis included clinical, biochemical, and endocrinological evaluation and frequent CT/MRI scans of involved organs as primary evaluation and in response to immunosuppressive therapy. RESULT: Neurosarcoidosis was diagnosed in all patients. Two patients had no proven extracerebral manifestation and had a stable disease over 3 and 5 years. One patient showed deterioration with corticosteroids alone but partial remission after additional cyclophosphamide. Pituitary dysfunction remained unchanged in all patients, despite total clinical and radiological remission in two patients. However, one of these patients died of acute granulomatous meningoencephalitis after two years of follow-up. CONCLUSION: Although the presenting symptoms of neurosarcoidosis may vary, the occurrence of central diabetes insipidus associated with typical radiological features is suggestive of neurosarcoidosis. However, there is an increasing number of case reports on lymphocytic hypophysitis. Without the bioptic diagnosis, the differentiation between potentially lethal isolated neurosarcoidosis and lymphocytic hypophysitis is difficult. These cases demonstrate the difficulties in diagnosing neurosarcoidosis and reflect experiences with follow-up parameters.
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ranking = 34.187103692
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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7/109. Acute encephalopathy associated with vigabatrin in a six-month-old girl.

    PURPOSE: vigabatrin (VGB) is a new-generation anticonvulsant used in the treatment of partial seizures and West syndrome. Side effects of VGB treatment in adults and children are well described. Acute encephalopathy with VGB has recently been reported in eight adults. They developed stupor, confusion, and electroencephalographic abnormalities after starting VGB. Does the acute encephalopathy with VGB also occur in childhood? methods: We describe a 6-month-old girl with infantile alexander disease with hydrocephalus who developed similar clinical symptoms with apathia, somnolence, and sopor, as well as slowing of the background activity in EEG, 3 days after starting VGB. After exclusion of shunt dysfunction, encephalitis, metabolic dysfunction, and renal failure, VGB was discontinued. RESULTS: During the next 2 days, symptoms subsided, and after 10 days, EEG background activity returned to the one before starting VGB. CONCLUSIONS: Acute encephalopathy associated with VGB in children seems to be very rare, but should not be ignored.
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ranking = 32.243148743753
keywords = encephalitis
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8/109. Hypothetical pathophysiology of acute encephalopathy and encephalitis related to influenza virus infection and hypothermia therapy.

    BACKGROUND: To establish a treatment strategy for acute encephalopathy and encephalitis associated with influenza virus infection, the pathophysiology of the disease was investigated through manifestations and laboratory findings of patients. patients AND methods: A child with central nervous system (CNS) complications during the course of influenza virus infection was analyzed in view of immunologic abnormalities. In addition, four children with acute encephalopathy and encephalitis were enrolled in the hypothermia treatment for the purpose of stabilizing the cytokine storm in the CNS. RESULTS: The CNS symptoms preceded the systemic progression to the failure of multiple organs (MOF) and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC). The mild hypothermia suppressed the brain edema on computed tomography (CT) scanning and protected the brain from the subsequent irreversible neural cell damage. CONCLUSION: The replicated viruses at the nasopharyngeal epithelium may disrupt the olfactory mucosa and gain access to the brain via the olfactory nerve system. The direct virus-glial cell interaction or viral stimulation of the glial cells induces the production and accumulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, in the CNS. The cytokine storm results in neural cell damage as well as the apoptosis of astrocytes, due to the TNF-alpha-induced mitochondrial respiratory failure. The disruption of the blood-brain barrier progresses to the systemic cytokine storm, resulting in DIC and MOF. Mild hypothermia appears promising in stabilizing the immune activation and the brain edema to protect the brain from ongoing functional, apoptotic neural and glial damage and the systemic expansion of the cytokine storm.
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ranking = 193.45889246252
keywords = encephalitis
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9/109. Profound amnesia after damage to the medial temporal lobe: A neuroanatomical and neuropsychological profile of patient E. P.

    E. P. became profoundly amnesic in 1992 after viral encephalitis, which damaged his medial temporal lobe bilaterally. Because of the rarity of such patients, we have performed a detailed neuroanatomical analysis of E. P.'s lesion using magnetic resonance imaging, and we have assessed his cognitive abilities with a wide range of neuropsychological tests. Finally, we have compared and contrasted the findings for E. P. with the noted amnesic patient H.M, whose surgical lesion is strikingly similar to E. P.'s lesion.
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ranking = 32.243148743753
keywords = encephalitis
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10/109. A residual cystic lesion in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    We report a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) with a residual cystic lesion on MRI. This seemed to be induced by Japanese encephalitis vaccination. Despite complete clinical improvement with high-dose steroid therapy, the cystic lesion has persisted for 3 years on MRI. There have been no previous reports of residual cystic lesions in ADEM.
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ranking = 32.243148743753
keywords = encephalitis
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