Cases reported "Brain Diseases"

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1/520. Central nervous system T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in a patient with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PURPOSE: Central nervous system (CNS)-T cell lymphoproliferative disorder (T-LPD) developing during the course of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is reported. patients AND methods: CAEBV was diagnosed in a 14-month-old boy with fever, cytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and abnormal high titers of anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies. At 8 years of age, he had a splenectomy because of progressive disease. RESULTS: After 27 months of clinical remission, muscle weakness and paresthesia developed. magnetic resonance imaging of his brain showed spotty T2 prolongation in left parietal, bilateral frontal, and temporal white matter with meningeal enhancement. Brain biopsy revealed the cerebral infiltration of CD3 , CD4 , CD8-, CD45RO , CD56-, and EBV-encoded rna 1 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The CNS involvement of EBV-associated T-LPD is a rare but serious complication in CAEBV without known underlying immunodeficiency.
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2/520. Chronic steadily progressive central and peripheral predominantly motor demyelination, involving the cranial nerves, responsive to immunoglobulins.

    The association of central and peripheral demyelination was reported previously. Most of the cases refer to central chronic relapsing demyelination with clinical criteria for multiple sclerosis associated with later signs of peripheral nerve involvement. Other authors, described central lesions in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and in guillain-barre syndrome, as a seldom occurrence. We report a patient in which a chronic steadily progressive central and peripheral predominantly motor nervous system demyelination, involving the cranial nerves, was identified. The patient improved after intravenous immunoglobulin suggesting an immune-mediated mechanism. To our knowledge this presentation was not described before.
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keywords = nervous system
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3/520. cyclosporine-induced white and grey matter central nervous system lesions in a pediatric renal transplant patient.

    Major neurologic complications secondary to cyclosporine are well documented and are known to include confusion, cortical blindness, seizure, spasticity, paresis, ataxia and coma. Most previous reports attribute these to white matter central nervous system (CNS) lesions or white/grey matter border lesions. Many predisposing factors have been identified, including: elevated levels of cyclosporine, hypomagnesemia, hypocholesterolemia, aluminium toxicity, high dose steroids, hypertension and infection. However CNS events attributed to cyclosporine have been reported without any of these risk factors. We report a case of a child developing multiple white and grey matter thalamic and cortical lesions along with acute neurologic deterioration, and then review cyclosporine mediated CNS injury, including the roles of p-glycoprotein and cyclophilin.
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keywords = nervous system
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4/520. Visual loss with Langerhans cell histiocytosis: multifocal central nervous system involvement.

    A 42-year-old woman with a 6-year history of diabetes insipidus and progressive hypersomnolence presented with visual loss. neuroimaging showed infiltration in the hypothalamus, the optic nerve, and the chiasm, as well as multiple lesions in other areas of the brain parenchyma. biopsy showed Langerhans cell histiocytosis. This is an unusual presentation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, involving the visual pathways without manifestations outside of the central nervous system. The differential diagnosis and the magnetic resonance imaging findings will be discussed.
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keywords = nervous system
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5/520. Intracranial calcification mimicking the sturge-weber syndrome: a consequence of cerebral folic acid deficiency?

    Cerebral cortical calcification identical to that of the sturge-weber syndrome was observed in two children. In one child the calcification appeared after intrathecal administration of methotrexate and skull irradiation because of leukemia involving the central nervous system. In the other child, who had coeliac disease and epilepsy, the calcification appeared after treatment with anticonvulsants. This treatment was also contributing to the development of profound megaloblastic anemia. The unspecificity of the Sturge-Weber calcification is stressed and the hypothesis is put forward that the calcification may be secondary to folic acid deficiency interfering with the matabolism in the central nervous system.
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keywords = nervous system
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6/520. actinomycosis of the central nervous system: surgical treatment of three cases.

    Three cases of actinomycotic brain infection are described, 2 of which manifested as cerebral abscess, the third as epidural empyema. Complete resolution of the infection was always achieved by means of surgical treatment and prolonged antibiotic therapy. The cases reported emphasize the importance of a combined approach in the treatment of this unusual cause of brain infection.
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7/520. Successful use of alternate waste nitrogen agents and hemodialysis in a patient with hyperammonemic coma after heart-lung transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: Lethal hyperammonemic coma has been reported in 2 adults after lung transplantation. It was associated with a massive elevation of brain glutamine levels, while plasma glutamine levels were normal or only slightly elevated. In liver tissue, glutamine synthetase activity was markedly reduced, and the histologic findings resembled those of reye syndrome. The adequacy of therapy commonly used for inherited disorders of the urea cycle has not been adequately evaluated in patients with this form of secondary hyperammonemia. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hemodialysis, in conjunction with intravenous sodium phenylacetate, sodium benzoate, and arginine hydrochloride therapy, would be efficacious in a patient with hyperammonemic coma after solid-organ transplantation. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: A children's hospital. PATIENT: A 41-year-old woman with congenital heart disease developed a hyperammonemic coma with brain edema 19 days after undergoing a combined heart and lung transplantation. methods: Ammonium was measured in plasma. amino acids were quantitated in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by column chromatography. The effectiveness of therapy was assessed by measuring plasma ammonium levels and intracranial pressure and performing sequential neurological examinations. RESULTS: The patient had the anomalous combination of increased cerebrospinal fluid and decreased plasma glutamine levels. To our knowledge, she is the first patient with this complication after solid-organ transplantation to survive after combined therapy with sodium phenylacetate, sodium benzoate, arginine hydrochloride, and hemodialysis. Complications of the acute coma included focal motor seizures, which were controlled with carbamazepine, and difficulty with short-term memory. CONCLUSIONS: The aggressive use of hemodialysis in conjunction with intravenous sodium phenylacetate, sodium benzoate, and arginine hydrochloride therapy may allow survival in patients after solid-organ transplantation. An acute acquired derangement in extra-central nervous system glutamine metabolism may play a role in the production of hyperammonemia in this illness that resembles reye syndrome, and, as in other hyperammonemic disorders, the duration and degree of elevation of brain glutamine levels may be the important determining factors in responsiveness to therapy.
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keywords = nervous system
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8/520. Cytologic diagnosis of a solitary brain metastasis from papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid metastasizes to the brain in rare instances. In published series and case reports of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma, diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) metastases has been determined by histologic methods. We present a case of papillary carcinoma metastatic to brain diagnosed by cytologic methods. CASE: A 43-year-old female, initially diagnosed at age 12 with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid metastatic to regional lymph nodes and lung, presented with head aches of increasing frequency and severity. A computed tomography scan confirmed a 1-cm nodule in the right inferior frontal lobe of the brain. For clinical reasons, the patient was followed with serial imaging for five years. At age 48 there was significant progression of the CNS disease, and the patient underwent stereotactic biopsy with drainage of cyst fluid. Cytologic examination of the cyst fluid and immunocytochemical studies confirmed the typical features of papillary thyroid carcinoma, including papillary clusters of cells with finely granular chromatin, micronucleoli, nuclear grooves and an associated psammoma body. CONCLUSION: Neurocytology is a useful technique in the examination of cystic lesions of the brain and may be the sole technique for determination of diagnosis.
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keywords = nervous system
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9/520. Intracranial extracerebral neuroglial heterotopia: A case report and review of the literature.

    Heterotopic masses of neuroglial tissue are uncommon and most frequently involve extracranial midline structures. We report an unusual case of an intracranial, extracerebral neuroglial heterotopia involving the middle and anterior cranial fossae of a 5-year-old girl who presented with facial asymmetry. The lesion was composed of mature but disorganized gray and white matter admixed with surrounding soft tissues and exhibited histologic features reminiscent of cortical dysplasia. These rare lesions have been postulated to arise from a protrusion of tissue from the neuraxis through a pial defect, from abnormalities in the migration of embryonic neuroepithelial tissue, or from an accessory evagination of the neural tube inferior to the telencephalic vesicles. Regardless of the underlying pathogenic mechanism, these lesions must be histologically distinguished from both teratomas and primary central nervous system neoplasms.
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keywords = nervous system
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10/520. Encephalopathy caused by visceral larva migrans due to ascaris suum.

    We described a patient with encephalopathy associated with visceral larva migrans (VLM) caused by ascaris suum. He suffered from drowsiness, quadriparesis, eosinophilia and elevated serum IgE levels. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed multiple cerebral cortical and white matter lesions. Serological tests indicated recent infection with A. suum. pulse steroid therapy relieved the patient's central nervous system symptoms and marked improvement of lesions on brain MR images. We concluded that the encephalopathy in this patient was probably caused by VLM due to ascaris suum.
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keywords = nervous system
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