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1/223. Abrupt exacerbation of acute subdural hematoma mimicking benign acute epidural hematoma on computed tomography--case report.

    A 75-year-old male was hit by a car, when riding a bicycle. The diagnosis of acute epidural hematoma was made based on computed tomography (CT) findings of lentiform hematoma in the left temporal region. On admission he had only moderate occipitalgia and amnesia of the accident, so conservative therapy was administered. Thirty-three hours later, he suddenly developed severe headache, vomiting, and anisocoria just after a positional change. CT revealed typical acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), which was confirmed by emergent decompressive craniectomy. He was vegetative postoperatively and died of pneumonia one month later. Emergent surgical exploration is recommended for this type of ASDH even if the symptoms are mild due to aged atrophic brain.
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2/223. macrocephaly and dilated Virchow-Robin spaces in childhood.

    We report two children who presented with progressive macrocephaly and dilated Virchow-Robin spaces on magnetic resonance imaging. Follow-ups of 1-4 years and 5-9 years, respectively, showed normal neuro-developmental progress. We suggest that dilated Virchow-Robin spaces in patients with macrocephaly is a benign association.
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keywords = space
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3/223. Solid cerebral echinococcosis mimicking a primary brain tumor.

    Solitary brain affection is rare in echinococcosis. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman presenting with symptomatic grand-mal epilepsy due to a right frontal, partially cystic space-occupying lesion. Pre-operative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested a cystic astrocytoma. However, histological examination yielded the diagnosis of a 'chitinoma', a rare subtype of solid cerebral hydatid disease (echinococcosis). It mimicked a primary brain tumor and, therefore, posed a diagnostic problem. We present the--to our knowledge--first MRI scans in a case of a histologically proven chitinoma.
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keywords = space
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4/223. Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome: a genetic microangiopathy?

    Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (AGS) (McKusick 225750) is an autosomal recessive disease with onset in the 1st year of life, resulting in progressive microcephaly, calcification of cerebral white matter, thalamus and basal ganglia, generalized cerebral demyelination and a chronic low-grade CSF lymphocytosis, without evidence of infection. We report the autopsy of a patient who died with this disorder at the age of 17 years. Findings were severe microencephaly, diffuse but inhomogeneous cerebral white matter loss with associated astrocytosis, calcific deposits in the white matter, thalami and basal ganglia. neocortex and cerebellar cortex were affected by wedge-shaped microinfarctions. Small vessels showed calcification in the media, adventitia and perivascular spaces. These findings are similar to some previous publications that in retrospect may have been AGS, but this is the first reported cerebral microangiopathy in which the diagnosis AGS was made during lifetime. This report provides evidence that microangiopathy plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of AGS.
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keywords = space
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5/223. Expanding lacunae causing triventricular hydrocephalus. Report of two cases.

    Two patients are reported in whom the presence of triventricular hydrocephalus and aqueductal obstruction or stenosis due to multiple expanding lacunae in the mesencephalothalamic region possibly corresponds to abnormally dilated perivascular spaces. Placement of a ventriculoperitoneal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt in one patient and the performance of a third ventricle cisternotomy in the other reversed the hydrocephalic syndrome, but did not modify the complex neuroophthalmological disturbance and rubral tremor presumably related to the compressive effects of the lacunae on adjacent parenchyma. In one patient the number and size of the lacunae were increased 4 years after CSF shunt placement. A review of the literature revealed two cases in which magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a similar, poorly understood pathological condition.
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keywords = space
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6/223. Planning and simulation of neurosurgery in a virtual reality environment.

    OBJECTIVE: To report our experience with preoperative neurosurgical planning in our stereoscopic virtual reality environment for 21 patients with intra- and extra-axial brain tumors and vascular malformations. methods: A neurosurgical planning system called VIVIAN (Virtual Intracranial Visualization and Navigation) was developed for the Dextroscope, a virtual reality environment in which the operator reaches with both hands behind a mirror into a computer-generated stereoscopic three-dimensional (3-D) object and moves and manipulates the object in real time with natural 3-D hand movements. Patient-specific data sets from multiple imaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance venography, and computed tomography) were coregistered, fused, and displayed as a stereoscopic 3-D object. A suite of 3-D tools accessible inside the VIVIAN workspace enabled users to coregister data, perform segmentation, obtain measurements, and simulate intraoperative viewpoints and the removal of bone and soft tissue. RESULTS: VIVIAN was used to plan neurosurgical procedures primarily in difficult-to-access areas, such as the cranial base and the deep brain. The intraoperative and virtual reality 3-D scenarios correlated well. The VIVIAN system substantially contributed to surgical planning by 1) providing a quick and better understanding of intracranial anatomic and abnormal spatial relationships, 2) simulating the craniotomy and the required cranial base bone work, and 3) simulating intraoperative views. CONCLUSION: The VIVIAN system allows users to work with complex imaging data in a fast, comprehensive, and intuitive manner. The 3-D interaction of this virtual reality environment is essential to the efficient assembly of surgically relevant spatial information from the data derived from multiple imaging techniques. The usefulness of the system is highly dependent on the accurate coregistration of the data and the real-time speed of the interaction.
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keywords = space
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7/223. Visualization of intravenously administered contrast material in the CSF on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery MR images: an in vitro and animal-model investigation.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery) pulse sequence has been shown to be sensitive to abnormalities of the subarachnoid space. Our clinical experience led us to investigate whether intravenously injected contrast material can affect the appearance of the subarachnoid space on FLAIR MR images. methods: After noting unexplained high signal in the subarachnoid space on FLAIR images in a patient, we studied two dogs with sequential FLAIR MR imaging after i.v. administration of contrast material. A third dog was studied with a 6-hour delayed FLAIR sequence after triple-dose (0.3 mmol/kg) i.v. contrast administration. CSF was obtained from two animals for measurement of gadolinium concentration. A phantom was developed to determine the lowest concentration at which the effects of gadolinium were evident on FLAIR images in vitro. RESULTS: In all three animals, the appearance of the CSF in the ventricles or subarachnoid space was modified after administration of i.v. contrast. This was most evident on delayed images. The CSF samples showed a gadolinium concentration of 0.007 mmol/L in the dog who received the 0.1 mmol/kg dose and 0.02 mmol/L in the dog who received a triple dose. In our in vitro phantom experiments, gadolinium effects were evident on FLAIR images at a concentration four times lower than those on T1-weighted images. CONCLUSION: I.v. contrast material can cross into the CSF in sufficient concentration to alter the appearance of the subarachnoid space on FLAIR images in normal dogs. Although we encountered two patients with CNS disease in whom enhancement of the CSF was seen on postcontrast FLAIR images, additional investigation is needed in humans to determine whether enhancement may occur at triple dose in healthy subjects.
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ranking = 0.075846804188015
keywords = space
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8/223. craniotomy performed with LMA: a case report.

    Since its introduction into clinical practice in 1988, the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) has been used as an alternative device to achieve and maintain control of the airway during anesthetics. The LMA has been used primarily in patients undergoing peripheral procedures in the supine position. The authors describe its use in an open intracranial neurosurgical procedure for a patient with a space occupying lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first such description in the literature.
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keywords = space
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9/223. Acute subdural hematoma and intracerebral hemorrhage. Rare complications of rhinocerebral mucormycosis.

    Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a short-term and often rapidly lethal fungal disease. It is generally seen in uncontrolled cases of diabetes with ketoacidosis. This case exhibits many of the features of a typical fulminating rhinocerebral mucormycosis. However, the fatal complications of acute subdural hematoma and massive intracerebral hemorrhage due to rupture of aneurysm, as demonstrated by angiography, are unique clinical manifestations of patients with rhinocerebral mucormycosis.
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keywords = subdural
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10/223. Giant cystic craniopharyngiomas with extension into the posterior fossa.

    Between 1991 and 1998, 24 patients underwent surgery for a craniopharyngioma in our department. This group included two patients who had tumors with extensive growth along the midline, and along the posterior fossa in particular. In both cases suprasellar calcifications were typical features on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). A 7-year-old boy presented with a 6-month history of headache, nausea, and progressive unilateral hearing loss. With a suboccipital approach it was possible to remove the main part of the tumor. In a 13-year-old boy headache and visual deterioration led to the diagnosis of a craniopharyngioma, which was removed with a pterional approach. For the neuroimaging work-up in such cases of atypically growing craniopharyngiomas MRI is the method of choice. Additional CT scanning is recommended, which provides valuable information about bony changes at the skull base due to space-occupying growth. CT substantiates the differential diagnosis if typical calcifications are seen.
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ranking = 0.015169360837603
keywords = space
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