Cases reported "Brain Edema"

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1/417. Two similar cases of encephalopathy, possibly a reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome: serial findings of magnetic resonance imaging, SPECT and angiography.

    Two young women who had encephalopathy that resembled reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome are presented. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of these patients exhibited similar T2-high signal lesions, mostly in the white matter of the posterior hemispheres. Xe-SPECT during the patients' symptomatic period showed hypoperfusion in the corresponding areas, and angiography demonstrated irregular narrowing of the posterior cerebral artery. Clinical manifestations subsided soon after treatment, and the abnormal radiological findings also were almost completely resolved. Thus, we concluded that transient hypoperfusion followed by ischemia and cytotoxic edema might have had a pivotal role in these cases.
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2/417. Cerebral radionecrosis following the treatment of parotid tumours: a case report and review of the literature.

    radiotherapy is an accepted part of the treatment of malignant tumours of the parotid gland. The use of radiotherapy in benign parotid tumours, where spillage of tumour cells has occurred at operation, is more controversial. radiotherapy to the parotid bed is not without morbidity. Complications may arise as a result of radiation damage to neighbouring structures and there is also potential to induce malignant disease. A patient, whose postoperative radiotherapy following resection of a pleomorphic salivary gland adenoma was complicated by cerebral necrosis, is discussed. The literature pertaining to morbidity of radiotherapy for parotid tumours is reviewed.
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3/417. Fatal haemorrhagic infarct in an infant with homocystinuria.

    Thrombotic and thromboembolic complications are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with homocystinuria. However, it is unusual for thrombosis and infarction to be the presenting feature leading to investigation for homocystinuria and cerebrovascular lesions in the first year of life. We describe a previously healthy 6-month-old infant who presented with a large middle-cerebral-artery territory infarction and died of massive brain swelling. homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency was diagnosed by metabolite analysis and confirmed by enzymatic activity measurement in a postmortem liver biopsy. homocystinuria should be considered in the differential diagnosis of venous or arterial thrombosis, regardless of age, even in the absence of other common features of the disease. We recommend systematic metabolic screening for hyperhomocysteinemia in any child presenting with vascular lesions or premature thromboembolism.
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4/417. Cerebral edema and priapism in an adolescent with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    priapism and increased intracranial pressure are both rare, but recognized, manifestations of leukemia. However, they have never been reported in the same patient. We report a 15-year-old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who presented with hyperleukocytosis, priapism, and increased intracranial pressure. central nervous system leukostasis and cerebral edema may have been detected earlier, had his history of priapism been known. Management of hyperleukocytosis complicated by priapism and increased intracranial pressure is discussed.
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5/417. diffusion- and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in deep cerebral venous thrombosis.

    BACKGROUND: diffusion-weighted (DWI) and perfusion-weighted (PI) MRI are highly sensitive techniques for early diagnosis of arterial infarction, but little data on venous cerebral ischemia are available. We describe a case in which DWI, PI, and fast T2-weighted sequences were performed in the acute phase of deep cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). CASE DESCRIPTION: An 11-year-old girl with Crohn's disease developed deep CVT in which extensive edema was shown in the deep gray matter on T2-weighted sequence images. Isotropic echo-planar DWI demonstrated a local augmentation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (1.1 to 1.6x10(-3) mm2/s), consistent with vasogenic edema. In dynamic contrast-enhanced PI, the regional cerebral blood volume was increased and the passage time of the contrast bolus was markedly prolonged. Clinically, the patient recovered totally after intravenous full-dose heparinization. T2 abnormalities, apparent diffusion coefficient values (0.8 to 0.92x10(-3) mm2/s), and brain perfusion alterations resolved without damage to brain tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike arterial infarction, DWI demonstrated vasogenic edema in a patient with deep CVT, which proved to be reversible in follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. PI showed areas with extensive venous congestion, but perfusion deficits were missing. Therefore, we believe that DWI and PI may play a role in detecting venous congestion in CVT and in prospective differentiation of vasogenic edema and venous infarction.
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6/417. A new subtype of meningioma.

    Three patients with small meningiomas presented with diffuse cerebral edema that was out of proportion to the size of tumors. All lesions were small and no brain invasion or unusual tumor vascularity or dural sinus involvement was noted in any of the three cases. Tumor material was subjected to conventional and immunohistochemical stains. All three tumors showed benign meningothelial components, prominent formation of hyaline inclusions (pseudopsammoma bodies), and striking vascular mural proliferation of small dark cells. All patients have remained asymptomatic without any evidence of tumor recurrence after a follow-up of 4-6 years. These tumors showed proliferation of pericytes in blood vessel walls and, therefore, represent a new subtype of meningothelial meningioma. In the study presented here, the location, size, histotype, and clinical findings that may influence the development of peritumoral brain edema are discussed in detail.
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7/417. Reactivation of neurocysticercosis: case report.

    A 37-year-old woman with a known history of longstanding neurocysticercosis presented with a three-day history of new onset headache. Several years prior to her current presentation, she had undergone cysticidal treatment and was assumed to be cured of active disease. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies done three months prior to presentation showed multiple intracerebral calcified lesions consistent with resolved neurocysticercosis. Physical and laboratory findings were noncontributory. Imaging studies showed the same previously calcified lesions, but they were now surrounded by large amounts of edema. This case represents a unique report of reactivation of neurocysticercosis and raises interesting questions about the natural history of this infection.
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8/417. indomethacin for brain edema following stroke.

    Conventional therapies for raised intracranial pressure (ICP) frequently are not effective. We report a patient with raised ICP following a large hemispheric stroke. After conventional therapies had failed, indomethacin was repeatedly administered. After bolus infusion (50 mg), the ICP fell by a mean of 8.1 mm Hg, and the mean arterial blood pressure increased by a mean of 7.1 mm Hg, leading to a mean increase in the cerebral perfusion pressure by 15.3 mm Hg. After 1 h, the ICP had returned to baseline values after most infusions. Continuous infusion of indomethacin was not effective. We conclude that indomethacin may reduce elevated ICP over a short time in patients with ischemic brain edema even after conventional therapy has failed.
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keywords = cerebral
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9/417. Lethal encephalopathy complicating childhood shigellosis.

    A 6-year-old girl is described who died following rapid neurological deterioration, ending in lethal cerebral oedema. Despite the absence of severe intestinal and metabolic derangement, shigella was cultured from the stool. Toxic encephalopathy is responsible for death following this rare complication of childhood shigellosis in developed countries. The pathophysiology is unknown. CONCLUSION: Lethal toxic encephalopathy can be caused by shigella despite the absence of severe intestinal and metabolic derangement. If shigelllosis is suspected, headache may be a first significant sign for the development of toxic encephalopathy. Early recognition and rapid measures to prevent brain oedema may improve outcome.
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keywords = cerebral
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10/417. Aggravation of brainstem symptoms caused by a large superior cerebellar artery aneurysm after embolization by Guglielmi detachable coils--case report.

    An 81-year-old male presented with right oculomotor nerve paresis and left hemiparesis caused by a mass effect of a large superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. Endovascular treatment was performed using Guglielmi detachable coils. The patient subsequently suffered aggravation of the mass effect 3 weeks after the embolization. Bilateral vertebral artery occlusion was performed, which decreased the cerebral edema surrounding the aneurysm, but his neurological symptoms did not improve. Parent artery occlusion is recommended as the first choice of treatment for an unclippable large or giant aneurysm causing a mass effect on the brainstem.
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