Cases reported "Brain Edema"

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1/18. Abrupt exacerbation of acute subdural hematoma mimicking benign acute epidural hematoma on computed tomography--case report.

    A 75-year-old male was hit by a car, when riding a bicycle. The diagnosis of acute epidural hematoma was made based on computed tomography (CT) findings of lentiform hematoma in the left temporal region. On admission he had only moderate occipitalgia and amnesia of the accident, so conservative therapy was administered. Thirty-three hours later, he suddenly developed severe headache, vomiting, and anisocoria just after a positional change. CT revealed typical acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), which was confirmed by emergent decompressive craniectomy. He was vegetative postoperatively and died of pneumonia one month later. Emergent surgical exploration is recommended for this type of ASDH even if the symptoms are mild due to aged atrophic brain.
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ranking = 1
keywords = decompressive craniectomy, decompressive, craniectomy
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2/18. Perioperative intracranial hemorrhage in achondroplasia: a case report.

    We report a case of a 35-year-old man with achondroplasia who previously had thoracolumbar decompressive laminectomies, who developed recurrence of spinal stenosis at the thoracolumbar junction. The patient underwent standard repeat thoracolumbar decompression, removal of a disc, and spinal fusion with instrumentation in the prone position. Postoperatively the patient was confused. Computed tomography (CT) revealed hemorrhages in both cerebellar hemispheres with surrounding edema and mild mass effect. These were interpreted as venous hemorrhages. Conservative therapy was successful. This is the first case report of perioperative venous intracranial hemorrhage in the context of spinal surgery for achondroplasia. Distinctive anatomic characteristics of achondroplasia, combined with several potentially modifiable aspects of his management, may have predisposed the patient to this complication.
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ranking = 0.053287668206859
keywords = decompressive
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3/18. Craniectomy in severe, life-threatening encephalitis: a report on outcome and long-term prognosis of four cases.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the feasibility of craniectomy with duraplasty in four patients with life-threatening encephalitis and, in particular, their long-term outcome. DESIGN: Report of four cases, analysis of the acute clinical course and neurological long-term sequelae. RESULTS: Generous craniectomy with duraplasty was performed in four patients with life-threatening encephalitis leading to decortication and decerebration. This treatment approach reduced intracranial pressure. The long-term sequelae (1.5-8 years after craniectomy) confirmed its appropriateness, having led to full neurological (cerebral) function, resocialization, and reintegration into their professional life in all four patients. CONCLUSION: Craniectomy with dural augmentation is a treatment approach in cases of severe space-occupying encephalitis, not only saving the patient's life but also leading to favorable long-term outcome.
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ranking = 0.12532201816633
keywords = craniectomy
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4/18. temporal muscle haematoma as a cause of suboptimal haemicraniectomy: case report.

    OBJECTIVE: To call attention to an unusual complication of decompressive haemicraniectomy in the treatment of malignant haemispheric infarction. METHOD: We describe a case in which partial decompression occurred despite large craniectomy. Complete decompression followed resection of the temporal muscle. Pertinent literature is briefly reviewed. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 55-year old woman developed massive right middle cerebral artery infarction evolving to cerebral haerniation in 40 hours. Decompressive haemicraniectomy without cortical excision was unable to revert coma and decerebrate posturing because of a massive temporal muscle haemorrhage with persistent contralateral deviation of midline structures. Muscle resection was followed by adequate external haerniation of the affected haemisphere and fast recovery. Cranioplasty was succesfully performed 22 days later, following gradual regression of cerebral oedema. CONCLUSION: There is an increasing perception of the need to operate patients with massive middle cerebral or internal carotid artery territory infarctions before the development of coma and cerebral haerniation. The most common factor leading to inadequate surgical decompression is small size craniectomy. The case reported calls attention to temporal muscle bleeding as an additional complication of craniectomy.
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ranking = 0.42925372270586
keywords = decompressive, craniectomy
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5/18. Cerebral edema associated with betaine treatment in classical homocystinuria.

    A child with cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency developed cerebral edema 4 to 6 weeks after starting betaine therapy. There was no evidence of intracranial thrombosis, but there was widespread edema of the white matter. He recovered fully after emergency decompressive craniotomy and withdrawal of betaine.
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ranking = 0.053287668206859
keywords = decompressive
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6/18. Transcranial doppler sonography in two patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy for traumatic brain swelling: report of two cases.

    The role of decompressive craniectomy in the treatment of severe posttraumatic cerebral swelling remains quite a controversial issue. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study demonstrating the effect of decompressive craniectomy on cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity by means of transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD). We present two patients who developed traumatic brain swelling and uncontrollable intracranial hypertension with coma and signs of transtentorial herniation. One patient underwent bifrontal, while the second, unilateral, frontotemporoparietal decompressive craniectomy with dural expansion. In both patients, TCD examinations were performed immediately before and after surgery to study the cerebral hemodynamic changes related to the operations. Pre and postoperative TCD examinations demonstrated a significant increase in blood flow velocity in the intracranial arteries in both subjects. In conclusion, our cases suggest that decompressive craniectomy with dural expansion may result in elevation of CBF velocity in patients with massive brain swelling. The increase in CBF velocity appears to occur not only in the decompressed hemisphere, but also on the opposite side.
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ranking = 8
keywords = decompressive craniectomy, decompressive, craniectomy
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7/18. Delayed bilateral craniectomy for treatment of traumatic brain swelling in children: case report and review of the literature.

    INTRODUCTION: Head injury is the leading cause of accidental death in children. Recent reports have shown the benefit of decompressive craniectomy in children and the role of early timing has been emphasized. However, there is still a lack of data to determine the optimal time for performing craniectomy. CASE REPORT: In contrast to most reports in the literature, this case report demonstrates successful bilateral decompressive craniectomy in a 10-year-old girl with multiple posttraumatic intracranial lesions and massive traumatic brain swelling on the 8th posttraumatic day. CONCLUSIONS: Various pathophysiological mechanisms in the genesis of posttraumatic brain swelling make different treatment strategies necessary. Continuous monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP), as well as serial cranial computed tomography (CCT), can help to differentiate between these mechanisms. Furthermore, repeated clinical and neurophysiological investigations are important for the timing of craniectomy.
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ranking = 2.2506440363327
keywords = decompressive craniectomy, decompressive, craniectomy
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8/18. Malignant cerebral infarction secondary to internal carotid injury in closed head trauma: good outcome with aggressive treatment--a case report.

    A 25-year-old male patient in whom occlusion of the internal carotid artery developed secondary to a skull base fracture is presented. The diagnosis of internal carotid artery occlusion was reached 12 hours after the admission and 17 hours after the injury. The patient was initially treated for ischemic edema and when the patient showed signs of cerebral herniation, decompressive craniectomy was necessary. The outcome was good. The clinical and radiologic characteristics of internal carotid artery occlusion in closed head injury are highlighted and treatment options are reviewed in light of pertinent literature.
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ranking = 1
keywords = decompressive craniectomy, decompressive, craniectomy
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9/18. Rapid expansion of a previously asymptomatic subependymoma. Case report.

    This 39-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of occipital headaches. magnetic resonance imaging revealed an irregularly shaped fourth ventricle mass. One month after his initial presentation, he was admitted to the hospital with significant tumor expansion and clinical deterioration. A posterior fossa craniectomy was performed and the mass was resected. Histopathological analysis of this tumor showed central necrosis with associated edema in an otherwise typical and benign-appearing subependymoma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of rapid, nonhemorrhagic expansion associated with necrosis in a previously asymptomatic subependymoma.
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ranking = 0.041774006055444
keywords = craniectomy
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10/18. Early combined cranioplasty and programmable shunt in patients with skull bone defects and CSF-circulation disorders.

    OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the clinical outcome after early combined cranioplasty (own frozen bone) and shunt implantation (Codman-Medos programmable VP shunt) in patients with skull bone defects and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation disorders.METHOD: medical records were reviewed retrospectively for the last 100 patients with CSF disorders after trauma or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), who previously underwent decompressive craniotomy owing to therapy-resistant brain swelling. patients treated with early (5 to 7 weeks after injury) combined cranioplasty and shunt implantation were analysed and a follow-up for the survivors was obtained.RESULTS: In 60 patients with a daily CSF external drainage over 150 ml and dilated ventricles in CT scan, a programmable VP shunt was implanted simultaneously with the cranioplasty within 5.1 weeks after decompression. The neurological condition 6 months later was good (independent patients) in 39 cases (65%); 12 patients (20%) survived with a severe disability; three patients (5%) remained in a persistent vegetative state and only six patients (10%) died. There were few complications: bone or shunt infection (three cases), post-operative intracranial bleeding (one case), transitory neurological impairment after bone reimplantation (two cases), bone resorption (two cases) and shunt dysfunction (three cases).CONCLUSION: The early reimplantation of the patient's own skull bone combined to the employment of a programmable shunt system allowed us a dynamic adjustment of the intracranial pressure (ICP) changes. The combined treatment reduced the number of required surgical procedures, complications and unsatisfactory patient outcomes.
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ranking = 0.053287668206859
keywords = decompressive
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