Cases reported "Brain Edema"

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1/43. Transient thalamic changes on MRI in a child with hypernatremia.

    Severe hypernatremia has been associated with a wide variety of central nervous system lesions. Neurologic sequelae are the usual outcome in those cases in which a lesion has been documented neuroradiologically. The authors report a 7-month-old male with severe hypernatremia who developed obtundation after correction of the electrolyte imbalance. magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral thalamic signal changes that resolved on follow-up study, in accordance with complete clinical recovery. To the authors' knowledge, bilateral thalamic signal changes are previously unreported findings associated with hypernatremia. Pertinent literature and the clinical course of the authors' patient are the basis for questioning currently recommended guidelines for the rate of correction of hypernatremia.
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2/43. Cerebral edema and priapism in an adolescent with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    priapism and increased intracranial pressure are both rare, but recognized, manifestations of leukemia. However, they have never been reported in the same patient. We report a 15-year-old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who presented with hyperleukocytosis, priapism, and increased intracranial pressure. central nervous system leukostasis and cerebral edema may have been detected earlier, had his history of priapism been known. Management of hyperleukocytosis complicated by priapism and increased intracranial pressure is discussed.
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3/43. coccidioidomycosis meningitis with massive dural and cerebral venous thrombosis and tissue arthroconidia.

    To our knowledge we report the first case of meningitis from coccidioides immitis associated with massive dural and cerebral venous thrombosis and with mycelial forms of the organism in brain tissue. The patient was a 43-year-old man with late-stage acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) whose premortem and postmortem cultures confirmed C immitis as the only central nervous system pathogenic organism. death was attributable to multiple hemorrhagic venous infarctions with cerebral edema and herniation. Although phlebitis has been noted parenthetically to occur in C immitis meningitis in the past, it has been overshadowed by the arteritic complications of the disease. This patient's severe C immitis ventriculitis with adjacent venulitis appeared to be the cause of the widespread venous thrombosis. AIDS-related coagulation defects may have contributed to his thrombotic tendency.
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4/43. Primary CNS lymphoma associated with streptococcal abscess: an autopsy case.

    This report describes a case of streptococcal abscess in the nodules of a primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed multiple lesions with ringlike enhancement over the bilateral frontal, right temporal, and left parietal lobes. On admission, acute brain edema occurred following angiography, which resulted in respiratory arrest. autopsy findings showed that the ringlike enhanced lesions on MRI were streptococcal abscesses localized in the lymphoma nodules. The lymphoma was classified as non-Hodgkin, diffuse large cells of B-cell lineage. No other lymphoma mass was found extracranially. An immunohistochemical study showed that the lymphoma cells were positive for leukocyte common antigen, Epstein-Barr virus, bax. and bcl-XL, and negative for L-26 and bcl-2. This case demonstrated that an opportunistic streptococcal abscess developed in primary CNS lymphoma in a patient without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), though a few similar cases have been reported in patients with AIDS.
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5/43. Cranial MRI in neonatal hypernatraemic dehydration.

    Severe neonatal hypernatraemia is a life-threatening electrolyte disorder because of its neurological complications. These are brain oedema, intracranial haemorrhages, haemorrhagic infarcts and thromboses. There are few reports concerning the radiological findings in the central nervous system in severe neonatal hypernatraemia. Cranial MRI findings in hypernatraemia have been reported in an older child, but have not been described in newborn infants. We report the cranial MRI findings in a newborn infant with acute renal failure and severe hypernatraemia.
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6/43. Postoperative stroke in a child with cerebral palsy heterozygous for factor v Leiden.

    A 5-year-old with spastic quadraparetic cerebral palsy suffered multiple strokes after extensive orthopedic surgery. Coagulation testing was undertaken to determine whether a familial thrombophilia was present. The patient was found to be heterozygous for factor v Leiden. factor v Leiden may be a risk factor for central nervous system events in special-needs children, particularly when common medical conditions create additional procoagulant risks.
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keywords = nervous system
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7/43. Pachymeningitis in microscopic polyangiitis (MPA): a case report and a review of central nervous system involvement in MPA.

    A case of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) with pachymeningitis is described. The patient had renal, skin, gallbladder and peripheral nervous system involvement, simultaneously with pachymeningitis. Necrotizing glomerulonephritis with crescent formation, and necrotizing small vessel vasculitis in the kidney and skin were confirmed by biopsy. A highly elevated titer of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody for myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA) was observed. All of the clinical and laboratory abnormalities improved with high-dose pulse and conventional steroid therapy. The literature on central nervous system involvement in MPA and perinuclear-ANCA (p-ANCA)-related vasculitis is reviewed. This case serves to emphasize that pachymeningitis can occur as one of the features of MPA.
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keywords = nervous system
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8/43. ethylene glycol ingestion resulting in brainstem and midbrain dysfunction.

    INTRODUCTION: ethylene glycol toxicity has produced central nervous system abnormalities including coma, cerebral edema, and cranial nerve dysfunction. CASE REPORT: A 26-year-old male developed widespread brainstem and midbrain dysfunction with corresponding cranial computed tomography findings after ingesting ethylene glycol. The computed tomography scan which was obtained 3 days after ethylene glycol ingestion showed low density areas in the basal ganglia, thalami, midbrain, and upper pons. The neurologic findings in our patient reflected dysfunction of all the areas of hypodensity on the cranial computed tomography scan. A magnetic resonance imaging of the brain obtained 24 days after ingestion revealed bilateral putamen necrosis. The patient's neurologic sequelae resolved over the following 4 months.
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keywords = nervous system
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9/43. mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, meningoencephalitis, and hemophagocytosis.

    central nervous system manifestations are a common extrapulmonary complication of mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, of which encephalitis is a well-recognized abnormality in children. In this report the first description of M. pneumoniae infection simultaneously complicated by meningoencephalitis and hemophagocytosis is presented.
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10/43. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome in a patient with hypertensive encephalopathy--case report.

    A 58-year-old male presented with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) manifesting as headache, papilledema, and renal hypertension. T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed hyperintensity lesions in the medulla, pons, bilateral thalami, and bilateral deep white matter of the parieto-occipital lobes. The pons was swollen. diffusion-weighted MR imaging did not show increased intensity in these lesions. The lesions disappeared with improvement of clinical symptoms after treatment for hypertension. These findings suggested the lesions were vasogenic edema and the diagnosis was RPLS. T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MR imaging are useful modalities to differentiate RPLS from other central nervous system abnormalities such as infarction, multiple sclerosis, and central pontine myelinolysis. The clinical and neuroradiological findings of RPLS can be reversed by timely initiation of treatment for the causative factor.
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keywords = nervous system
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