Cases reported "Brain Edema"

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1/23. Bilateral sphenoid wing metastases of prostate cancer presenting with extensive brain edema.

    A 76-year-old man insidiously developed diffuse neurological symptoms: cognitive decline, dysphagia, dysphasia and mental disturbance. Computed tomography of the cranium revealed widespread bilateral brain edema and symmetrical bilateral sphenoid wing hyperostosis. Adjacent to the hyperostosis that resembled skull base meningiomas, two separate parenchymatous temporal lobe lesions enhancing with contrast medium were observed. The patient had earlier been diagnosed to have prostatic carcinoma. dexamethasone therapy resulted in discontinuation of the neurological symptoms. The diagnosis of metastasized adenocarcinoma of the prostate was confirmed histologically on autopsy after a sudden death from pneumonia. Intracranial metastases of prostate cancer may have a predilection site at the sphenoid wing, and can mimic a skull base meningioma. Intracranial spread of prostatic adenocarcinoma should be considered in elderly men as a treatable cause of gradual neurological deterioration, especially if cranial malignancy or hyperostosis is found.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cancer
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2/23. Fatal toxic effect of bleomycin on brain tissue after intracystic chemotherapy for a craniopharyngioma: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Craniopharyngiomas are benign neoplasms of epithelial origin that arise from the remnants of Rathke's pouch and are located in the sellar, parasellar, and third ventricular regions. Despite major advances in microsurgical techniques, total removal of these tumors is associated with a high risk of death, long-term endocrinological dependence, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral disorders. For patients with monocystic craniopharyngiomas, encouraging postoperative survival rates and high rates of cyst regression after intracavitary administration of bleomycin have been reported. Moreover, only a few side effects have been reported for this treatment method. We report a patient with a cystic craniopharyngioma who was treated using intracavitary bleomycin administration and died as a result of the direct toxic effects of bleomycin on deep brain structures and the brainstem. CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: A 47-year-old woman with a cystic craniopharyngioma underwent stereotactic insertion of a catheter attached to a subcutaneous reservoir. Five months after the procedure, positive-contrast computed tomographic cystography was performed to confirm the absence of fluid leakage. Daily intracavitary injections of bleomycin were administered through the reservoir into the cyst, until a total dose of 56 mg had been administered in 8 days. After the treatment, the cystic cavity regressed but the patient exhibited neurological deterioration; magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed diffuse edema in the diencephalon and brainstem. The patient died 45 days after completion of the treatment. CONCLUSION: Intracavitary administration of bleomycin is not a treatment protocol without risks or side effects, even if there is no fluid leakage into the cerebrospinal fluid. Although this is known to be an effective treatment for cystic craniopharyngiomas, previous reports cannot be used to establish a standard treatment method, and more research is needed to yield a safer effective protocol.
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ranking = 0.66759356269328
keywords = neoplasm
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3/23. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor with intracranial extension: report of a case and review of the literature.

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign neoplasm, possibly of stratum intermedium origin and occurring predominantly in the mandible of adults. The treatment varies, depending on its size, location, and histology. A case of an advanced CEOT arising in the maxilla with intracranial extension is reported. The report is supplemented by a review of the literature.
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ranking = 0.66759356269328
keywords = neoplasm
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4/23. Parkinsonian syndrome in a patient with a pterional meningioma: case report and review of the literature.

    The onset of a Parkinsonism in a patient with intracranial meningioma is definitely rare. The authors described the case of a patient suffering from a Parkinsonian syndrome for 10 years with no evidence of clinical improvement after medical treatment. A CT-scan of the brain evidenced a right pterional intracranial meningioma. The complete surgical removal of the neoplasm succeeded in resolving the Parkinsonian syndrome. The extension of the neoplasm and of the peritumoral edema may play an important role in compressing and consequently impairing perfusion of the basal ganglia region.
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ranking = 1.3351871253866
keywords = neoplasm
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5/23. Cerebellous metastases in patients with uterine cervical cancer. Two cases reports and review of the literature.

    Brain metastases from cervical cancer are extremely rare. We report on two patients who developed cerebellous metastases following uterine cervical cancer. The interval between diagnosis of the primary cancer and diagnosis of brain metastasis was 8 months. The main complaint was symptoms of increased intracranial pressure and cerebellous syndrome. Surgical excision of the brain lesion followed by radiation therapy was performed in the first case. The second patient received palliative radiation therapy. The first patient died 8 months after diagnosis. The second patient is alive 2 months after diagnosis.
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ranking = 1.4
keywords = cancer
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6/23. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition to treat radiation-induced brain necrosis and edema.

    Brain necrosis and edema develop in a proportion of brain tumor patients treated with radiosurgery. Surgical resection and corticosteroids have considerable morbidity. Two metastatic melanoma brain lesions in a 14-year-old girl were treated with radiosurgery and whole-brain radiation treatment. Both lesions became symptomatic from radiologic features of necrosis and edema and were unresponsive to oral corticosteroids. The larger lesion was resected, but the other lesion continued to enlarge. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor was started, and the child improved clinically and radiologically. The usefulness of COX-2 inhibitors in treating radiation necrosis and edema, as suggested by this report, requires further study.
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ranking = 1697.3821557931
keywords = radiation-induced
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7/23. Extraventricular neurocytoma presenting with intratumoral hemorrhage.

    A case of extraventricular neurocytoma with spontaneous intratumoral hemorrhage is reported. A 47-year-old man presented with sudden left-sided hemiparesis. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right parietal subcortical mass with intratumoral hemorrhagic transformation and without contact to the ventricular system. After complete microsurgical removal, the tumor was histologically diagnosed as neurocytoma. Usually, the term "central neurocytoma" is restricted to neurocytic neoplasms arising within the cerebral ventricles. In the majority of the cases, these slow-growing, generally circumscribed lesions become symptomatic by obstructive hydrocephalus. Hemorrhagic onset is sporadically reported in the literature. In contrast to central neurocytomas, neurocytic lesions located within the brain parenchyma, so-called "extraventricular neurocytomas" are very uncommon. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first case of an extraventricular neurocytoma with histological classic features presenting with intratumoral hemorrhage in adults.
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ranking = 0.66759356269328
keywords = neoplasm
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8/23. Cerebral air embolism after intrathoracic anti-cancer drug administration.

    We report a case of cerebral arterial air embolism that was followed by a brain computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging during the first week after onset. A 73-year-old man was admitted for treatment of pleural dissemination that was a recurrence after right lower bilectomy for advanced lung cancer. Thirty minutes after an anti-drug administration through the chest drainage tube, he lost consciousness shortly after coughing. A bubble in the inferior sagittal sinus was observed on the day of the stroke, which then disappeared within 24 hours. It seems that the anti-cancer agent evoked inflammation at the visceral pleura and the subject inhaled massive air flow into the systemic circulation.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = cancer
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9/23. radiation-induced edema after radiosurgery for pontine arteriovenous malformation. A case report and detection by magnetic resonance imaging.

    A 29-year-old woman, who had undergone stereotactic radiosurgery for a pontine arteriovenous malformation, experienced sudden onset of facial nerve palsy with trigeminal nerve disturbance 19 months after irradiation. magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant radiation-induced edema surrounding the nidus. angiography demonstrated total obliteration of the arteriovenous malformation 24 months after irradiation. Further magnetic resonance imaging studies, performed 28 months after treatment, showed that, despite the persistence of symptoms, the radiation-induced edema had subsided.
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ranking = 848.69107789657
keywords = radiation-induced
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10/23. Large-sized brain metastasis of lung cancer without perifocal edema: case report.

    A very rare case of a large-sized brain metastasis of lung cancer without perifocal edema is reported. This case suggested that the degree of perifocal edema may depend on the localization of the tumor.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cancer
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