Cases reported "Brain Edema"

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1/65. Fatal haemorrhagic infarct in an infant with homocystinuria.

    Thrombotic and thromboembolic complications are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with homocystinuria. However, it is unusual for thrombosis and infarction to be the presenting feature leading to investigation for homocystinuria and cerebrovascular lesions in the first year of life. We describe a previously healthy 6-month-old infant who presented with a large middle-cerebral-artery territory infarction and died of massive brain swelling. homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency was diagnosed by metabolite analysis and confirmed by enzymatic activity measurement in a postmortem liver biopsy. homocystinuria should be considered in the differential diagnosis of venous or arterial thrombosis, regardless of age, even in the absence of other common features of the disease. We recommend systematic metabolic screening for hyperhomocysteinemia in any child presenting with vascular lesions or premature thromboembolism.
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ranking = 1
keywords = thrombosis
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2/65. diffusion- and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in deep cerebral venous thrombosis.

    BACKGROUND: diffusion-weighted (DWI) and perfusion-weighted (PI) MRI are highly sensitive techniques for early diagnosis of arterial infarction, but little data on venous cerebral ischemia are available. We describe a case in which DWI, PI, and fast T2-weighted sequences were performed in the acute phase of deep cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). CASE DESCRIPTION: An 11-year-old girl with Crohn's disease developed deep CVT in which extensive edema was shown in the deep gray matter on T2-weighted sequence images. Isotropic echo-planar DWI demonstrated a local augmentation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (1.1 to 1.6x10(-3) mm2/s), consistent with vasogenic edema. In dynamic contrast-enhanced PI, the regional cerebral blood volume was increased and the passage time of the contrast bolus was markedly prolonged. Clinically, the patient recovered totally after intravenous full-dose heparinization. T2 abnormalities, apparent diffusion coefficient values (0.8 to 0.92x10(-3) mm2/s), and brain perfusion alterations resolved without damage to brain tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike arterial infarction, DWI demonstrated vasogenic edema in a patient with deep CVT, which proved to be reversible in follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. PI showed areas with extensive venous congestion, but perfusion deficits were missing. Therefore, we believe that DWI and PI may play a role in detecting venous congestion in CVT and in prospective differentiation of vasogenic edema and venous infarction.
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ranking = 3.7329587879712
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis, deep
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3/65. Fatal toxic effect of bleomycin on brain tissue after intracystic chemotherapy for a craniopharyngioma: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Craniopharyngiomas are benign neoplasms of epithelial origin that arise from the remnants of Rathke's pouch and are located in the sellar, parasellar, and third ventricular regions. Despite major advances in microsurgical techniques, total removal of these tumors is associated with a high risk of death, long-term endocrinological dependence, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral disorders. For patients with monocystic craniopharyngiomas, encouraging postoperative survival rates and high rates of cyst regression after intracavitary administration of bleomycin have been reported. Moreover, only a few side effects have been reported for this treatment method. We report a patient with a cystic craniopharyngioma who was treated using intracavitary bleomycin administration and died as a result of the direct toxic effects of bleomycin on deep brain structures and the brainstem. CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: A 47-year-old woman with a cystic craniopharyngioma underwent stereotactic insertion of a catheter attached to a subcutaneous reservoir. Five months after the procedure, positive-contrast computed tomographic cystography was performed to confirm the absence of fluid leakage. Daily intracavitary injections of bleomycin were administered through the reservoir into the cyst, until a total dose of 56 mg had been administered in 8 days. After the treatment, the cystic cavity regressed but the patient exhibited neurological deterioration; magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed diffuse edema in the diencephalon and brainstem. The patient died 45 days after completion of the treatment. CONCLUSION: Intracavitary administration of bleomycin is not a treatment protocol without risks or side effects, even if there is no fluid leakage into the cerebrospinal fluid. Although this is known to be an effective treatment for cystic craniopharyngiomas, previous reports cannot be used to establish a standard treatment method, and more research is needed to yield a safer effective protocol.
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ranking = 0.0055829770730453
keywords = deep
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4/65. coccidioidomycosis meningitis with massive dural and cerebral venous thrombosis and tissue arthroconidia.

    To our knowledge we report the first case of meningitis from coccidioides immitis associated with massive dural and cerebral venous thrombosis and with mycelial forms of the organism in brain tissue. The patient was a 43-year-old man with late-stage acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) whose premortem and postmortem cultures confirmed C immitis as the only central nervous system pathogenic organism. death was attributable to multiple hemorrhagic venous infarctions with cerebral edema and herniation. Although phlebitis has been noted parenthetically to occur in C immitis meningitis in the past, it has been overshadowed by the arteritic complications of the disease. This patient's severe C immitis ventriculitis with adjacent venulitis appeared to be the cause of the widespread venous thrombosis. AIDS-related coagulation defects may have contributed to his thrombotic tendency.
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ranking = 4.4259539656642
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis
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5/65. diffusion-weighted MRI suggests the coexistence of cytotoxic and vasogenic oedema in a case of deep cerebral venous thrombosis.

    We report a 20-year-old woman who suffered headaches before presenting with a state of fluctuating vigilance. MRI showed diffuse high signal in the basal ganglia bilaterally on diffusion- and T2-weighted images, which had areas of both low and high apparent diffusion coefficient, presumed to correspond to cytotoxic and vasogenic oedema. MR venography showed no flow in the deep cerebral veins or straight sinus. heparin was given, with clinical recovery. On follow-up MRI, the appearances became normal.
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ranking = 2.9832196778637
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis, deep, vein
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6/65. A huge frontal meningioma associated with intraoperative massive bleeding and severe brain swelling--case report.

    A 58 year old female presented with progressive memory disturbance and personality change. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging disclosed a huge mass lesion accompanied by prominent oedema in the right frontal lobe. Cerebral angiogram demonstrated a vascular-rich tumour and a major drainer through diploic vein. A right frontotemporal craniotomy was performed. We encountered massive bleeding from diploic vein and dura mater immediately at the craniotomy. We were also faced with severe brain swelling at the dural incision. The tumour was solid, highly vascularised, and fairly well demarcated. We performed total removal of the tumour as quickly as possible in order to reduce the intracranial hypertension and avoid the impending brain herniation. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was asymptomatic at 10 months follow-up.
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ranking = 0.0093376307779246
keywords = vein
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7/65. classification of venous ischaemia with MRI.

    PURPOSE: Venous ischaemia is diagnosed by angiography and estimated with SPECT and PET. But venous ischaemia presents different features due to aetiology, type of onset, time course and collateral circulation. The purpose of this study was to analyse and to classify VI with MRI. methods: An analysis of 12 cases of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) with venous ischaemia, 4 cases of sinus thrombosis, and a case of cortical venous thrombosis was performed. Venous ischaemia is classified with MRI as Type 1: no abnormality, Type 2: T2WI showed high signal intensity area and Gd-MRI showed no enhancement, Type 3: T2WI showed high signal intensity area and Gd-MRI showed enhancement, Type 4: venous infarction or haemorrhage. RESULTS: Type 1 was 8 cases. Type 2 was 3 cases and indicated cytotoxic oedema. Type 3 was 2 cases and indicated vasogenic oedema because of the destruction of blood brain barrier. Type 4 was 4 cases. CONCLUSIONS: The classification may be a useful indicator of severity of venous ischaemia and treatment.
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ranking = 1.2376589942774
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis
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8/65. Severe hypernatremic dehydration and death in a breast-fed infant.

    breast milk is acknowledged as the best source of nutrition for neonates. We present the case of a full-term newborn who was fed solely breast milk and developed severe dehydration and hypernatremia. The patient developed cerebral edema, transverse sinus thrombosis, and died. The literature on the uncommon entity of breast-feeding hypernatremia and dehydration is reviewed, and management strategies are presented.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = thrombosis
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9/65. Congestive brain oedema associated with a pial arteriovenous malformation with impaired venous drainage.

    We describe two patients with an unruptured pial AVM accompanied by significant brain oedema at initial presentation. In both cases, the primary drainer was a cortical vein showing varicose dilatation. in which venous congestion was indicated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The restriction of venous drainage presumably caused venous hypertension in the surrounding brain, leading to the brain oedema and neurological symptoms. brain oedema can develop in patients with an unruptured AVM by venous congestion following spontaneous thrombosis of venous components. Varicosity in a major cortical draining vein and a small nidus are the possible lesions predisposing this fairly rare condition for unruptured AVMs.
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ranking = 0.50933763077792
keywords = thrombosis, vein
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10/65. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome in a patient with hypertensive encephalopathy--case report.

    A 58-year-old male presented with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) manifesting as headache, papilledema, and renal hypertension. T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed hyperintensity lesions in the medulla, pons, bilateral thalami, and bilateral deep white matter of the parieto-occipital lobes. The pons was swollen. diffusion-weighted MR imaging did not show increased intensity in these lesions. The lesions disappeared with improvement of clinical symptoms after treatment for hypertension. These findings suggested the lesions were vasogenic edema and the diagnosis was RPLS. T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MR imaging are useful modalities to differentiate RPLS from other central nervous system abnormalities such as infarction, multiple sclerosis, and central pontine myelinolysis. The clinical and neuroradiological findings of RPLS can be reversed by timely initiation of treatment for the causative factor.
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ranking = 0.0055829770730453
keywords = deep
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